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Beginnings of the Cold War. The Changing Grip. 1949.

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Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of the Cold War. The Changing Grip. 1949."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beginnings of the Cold War

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3 The Changing Grip. 1949

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5 What is a Cold War? Neither side fights directly Consequences of a “Hot War” was a deterrent for starting it – Nuclear Bombs Fighting occurred amongst “client” states Space Race/ Arms Race –Requires espionage (act of spying) World Influence Race (not imperialism or colonialism)

6 Conflict of SUPERPOWERS Pre WWII powers = Britain, France, Italy, US, Russia, Japan Superpowers come out of WWII because of their military strength (numbers) = US and Russia

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8 Causes of Cold War

9 1) Beliefs “One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.” A speech by President Truman of the US (1947)

10 “It would be wrong to think that the Second World War broke out accidentally, or as a result of blunders committed by certain statesmen, although blunders were certainly committed. As a matter of fact, the war broke out as the inevitable result of the development of world economic and political forces on the basis of present-day monopolistic capitalism. Marxists have more than once stated that the capitalist system of world economy contains the elements of a general crisis and military conflicts, that, in view of that, the development of world capitalism in our times does not proceed smoothly and evenly, but through crises and catastrophic wars. The point is that the uneven development of capitalist countries usually leads, in the course of time, to a sharp disturbance of the equilibrium within the world system of capitalism, and that group of capitalist countries regards itself as being less securely provides with raw materials and markets usually attempts to change the situation and to redistribute "spheres of influence" in its own favour -- by employing armed force. As a result of this, the capitalist world is split into two hostile camps, and war breaks out between them. “ Stalin speech to voters (1946)

11 Freedom Vs Human Rights Democracy Vs Dictatorship Capitalism Vs Communism

12 Freedom Vs Human Rights Democracy Vs Dictatorship Businesses/ farms owned by private people. Profit is good - a reward for risk-bearing. VERSUS Businesses and farms owned by the state and for the benefit of all people. Profit is a form of oppression. Capitalism Vs Communism

13 Freedom Vs Human Rights Democracy Vs Dictatorship Businesses/ farms owned by private people. Profit is good - a reward for risk-bearing. VERSUS Businesses and farms owned by the state and for the benefit of all people. Profit is a form of oppression. Capitalism Vs Communism Multi-party system. Free elections Parliament (UK)/ Congress (USA) make the laws. VERSUS Elections to the ‘Soviets’. One party only - the Communist Party Stalin de facto (in fact) an absolute dictator.

14 Freedom Vs Human Rights Democracy Vs Dictatorship Businesses/ farms owned by private people. Profit is good - a reward for risk-bearing. VERSUS Businesses and farms owned by the state and for the benefit of all people. Profit is a form of oppression. Capitalism Vs Communism Multi-party system. Free elections Parliament (UK)/ Congress (USA) make the laws. VERSUS Elections to the ‘Soviets’. One party only - the Communist Party Stalin de facto (in fact) an absolute dictator. Protests and demonstrations Human rights respected in law. VERSUS Dissidents imprisoned. KGB arrest grumblers. The Gulag.

15 Free Press Vs Censorship Class Vs Equality Free Market Vs Control

16 Free Press Vs Censorship Class Vs Equality Laws of supply and demand control production. Competition keeps prices low - weak go under. Strikes and unemployment. VERSUS ‘Controlled’ economy. Workers ordered to a job/ area. Wages and hours fixed by law. No unemployment – everybody has a job. Free Market Vs Control

17 Free Press Vs Censorship Class Vs Equality Laws of supply and demand control production. Competition keeps prices low - weak go under. Strikes and unemployment. VERSUS ‘Controlled’ economy. Workers ordered to a job/ area. Wages and hours fixed by law. No unemployment – everybody has a job. Free Market Vs Control Much wealthier 'consumer' economy - TVs/ cars. Great differences in wealth and class. Private medicine/ houses. VERSUS Poor standard of living. Fewer very poor people. Free health care/ state- provided flats.

18 Free Press Vs Censorship Class Vs Equality Laws of supply and demand control production. Competition keeps prices low - weak go under. Strikes and unemployment. VERSUS ‘Controlled’ economy. Workers ordered to a job/ area. Wages and hours fixed by law. No unemployment – everybody has a job. Free Market Vs Control Much wealthier 'consumer' economy - TVs/ cars. Great differences in wealth and class. Private medicine/ houses. VERSUS Poor standard of living. Fewer very poor people. Free health care/ state- provided flats. Freedom of speech Newspapers, books, radio/TV/ films not censored. Media criticize government. VERSUS No freedom of speech The media are owned and run by the government. Censorship and propaganda.

19 2) Aims Stalin wants: –Reparations from Germany –Buffer zone for Communism (since they had been attacked by Germany twice) Britain and US want: –Protect Democracy – contain Communism –Help Germany recover

20 Propaganda Both sides used propaganda to create fear of invasion by the other

21 American PropagandaPropaganda 1.How does the opening attempt to instil patriotism? 2.List what “America is to the people”. What are some of the themes? 3.Describe how are different characters portrayed and how are they connected to Capitalism or Communism? 4.Why are you supposed to believe that Capitalism is better? 5.What are you supposed to believe about Communism?

22 Soviet propagandapropaganda American Perspective

23 3) Resentment in History Soviet Union: –Allies helped Whites fight against the Communist Reds –Allies waited too long to help Russia in WWII Britain and US –Russia signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact in 1939

24 4) Conferences Yalta –Plans to divide Germany –Poland to have a provisional government with a free election Potsdam –Finalized division of Germany –Russia allowed to take reparations from their territory –Allies disagreed about division of Germany, reparations, and Russian influence over Eastern Europe (compromise for the Allies) –Introduction of a “new weapon”

25 Assignment: The creator of this website believes that Peter Moss is biased 1.Read the excerpt from Peter Moss’s textbook History Alive 4: s (1977) 2.Create a list of evidence that reveals a bias in this excerpt. 3.Using what you learned in today’s lesson, assess the validity (correctness) of the excerpt in note form. Take notes on points you believe are invalid. a. What further questions would you need to answer to assess the validity. Use the internet to find the answers for homework. 4.Answer the following in a paragraph: Is Peter Moss’s textbook a reliable source for understanding the differences between Russia and America that lead to the Cold War?

26 Assignment Bonus 1.Create a simple comic strip with one Russian and one American having a conversation about their countries 2.Have your comic show the growing tension between the two characters as they criticize the other country. 3.Include differences in beliefs, different aims, discuss historical events, actions at conferences. 4.Include illustrations, not just words and people.

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