Presentation on theme: "Method of foreign language teaching COURSE WORK NUKUS STATE PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTE named after AJINIYAZ DONE BY: Halmuratova A FACULTY of PHILOLOGY ENGLISH."— Presentation transcript:
Aims of teaching Practical-pupils acquire habits and skills in using a foreign language Educational – they develop their mental abilities and intelligence in the process of learning the foreign language Cultural-pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live
In modern society language is used in two ways Directly or orally Indirectly or written
Direct communication implies a speaker and hearer Indirect communication implies a writer and a reader The practical aims in teaching a foreign language are four in number Hearing Speaking Reading Writing
PRACTICAL aims as they are understood here,correspond to the idea of secondary school education –to provide pupils with the fundamentals of the subject.The nature of the language should also be taken into consideration in determining the aims of language teaching.The amount of time for language learning is ode of the most decisive factors in mastering and maintaining language proficiency since learners need practice.
Educational aims–at the most elementary level learning a second language teaches the cognizance of meaning,of furnishes a term of comparison that gives us an insight into the quality of language.When learning a foreign language the pupil understands better how language functions and this brings him to a greater awareness of the functioning of his own language Since language is connected with thinking, through foreign language study we can develop the pupil’s intellect.
Learning a foreign language makes the pupil acquainted with the life,customs and traditions of the people whose language he studies through visual material(such as post cards with the view of towns,countryside, and people;filmstrips)and reading material dealing with the countries where the target language is spoken.
The aim of this course is to enable student teachers to develop the personal qualities, knowledge and skills on which effective Modern Foreign Language teaching depends. Delivered by both schools and the University College in partnership, it aims to develop a knowledge and understading of Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) in the National Curriculum and a critical awareness of the key issues relating to the objectives, content and assessment of MFL teaching secondary schools.
Knowledge of other cultures First stage: It is essential that pupils become familiar with the cultural conventions and norms of a people whose language they speak, in order to avoid misunderstanding or even the complete breakdown of communication. The acquisition of cultural competence contributes to open-mindedness through the awareness of cultural differences. Mastery of European languages is the best possible way of securing unlimited access to the rich diversity of European culture and of overcoming stereotypes.
Second stage: The implicit content of words that only rarely have the same range of meaning in both the mother tongue and the foreign language. Explicit content related to a significant aspect of the country or community whose language is being studied (history, geography, folklore, etc.).
The initial objective is to awaken interest in the language concerned. Educational objective: the study of modern languages contributes to the personal enrichment of pupils, to the development of their intelligence and their social awareness. Cultural objective: use of another language makes it possible to appreciate ways of thinking and understand cultural patterns, which are different from our own. Practical objective: command of a foreign language presupposes the development of ability geared to the acquisition of the four major skills.
Listening Listening: – Encouraging children to derive pleasure from listening to a foreign language; – getting children used to listening to the language (its intonations, modulations and accentuation); – understanding and grasping the essentials of a simple oral message in the course of communication; – using the aural faculty to instil and develop other linguistic behavioural modes such as responding, speaking, singing, reading and writing.
Speaking nurturing and developing the desire to speak a foreign language, and the pleasure derived from doing so; – assimilating the rudiments of the languageby imitating and reproducing it, and training the phonetic organs in the process; – acquiring linguistic abilities; – enabling children to exercise their skills and learning achievements and develop them further
Reading nurturing the desire to read and the pleasure derived from doing so; – encouraging contact with written material; – understanding and grasping a written message to improve knowledge of specific aspects of the written language; – acquiring techniques to become a good reader.
Writing nurturing and developing the desire to communicate by writing in a foreign language, and the pleasure derived from doing so; – teaching children to reproduce in writing the various phonemes consistent with correct spelling and punctuation in the foreign language; – developing and consolidating the linguistic knowledge acquired in order to become familiar with the norms governing use of the written language; – expressing what one imagines and feels.
Understanding people from other cultures Learning activties should enable pupils to accept others notwithstanding their differences Overcoming prejudices and sterotypes to become tolerant and open-minded
Content–based Instructionrefers to an approach tosecond language teaching inwhich is organized around thecontext or information thatstudents will acquire, ratherthan around a linguistic orother type of syllabus. Principle 1 People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information. (motivation)Principle 2 Content-based instruction better reflects learners’ needs for learning a second language. (academic studies)
CBI addresses the role of language as a vehicle for learningLanguage is content. Centrality of linguistic entities longer than single text -and sentences. discourse- based In a CB class, students are often involved in activities thatLanguage use draws on link the skills. integrated skills The purpose may be academic, vocational, social, or recreational but it gives direction, shape, and meaning toLanguage is discourse and texts.purposeful The language curriculum is baseddirectly on the academic needs ofthe students and generally followsthe sequence determined by aparticular subject matter indealing with language.
Functional and communicative content greeting, saying goodbye, introducing (oneself and others); -identifying and explaining where you are going / where you are coming from; -starting and finishing a conversation, giving and requesting information; -spelling, naming, counting and calculating, correcting oneself; -accepting, refusing an invitation; -comparing, locating in time and space; -giving orders and advice; -expressing tastes and preferences; -expressing one's opinion, agreement and disagreement; -speaking of past events, describing and narrating; -expressing feelings, reporting questions and so on.
Linguistic content for comprehension and expression, oral and written work (ie the four skills), taking into account the characteristics of learners at this level and in particular their psychocognitive development. There is no need to emphasise the importance of the linguistic content; this is and always has been the most frequently and most broadly detailed area.
Educational content given the level of education with which we are dealing, such content should even be given priority, since it encompasses all the other aspects. All the factors which help to develop a pupil's metalinguistic consciousness, or which make it easier for him/her to discover a different culture and to assimilate it - which are by definition and in their own right important elements in linguistic and intercultural areas - are also elements of the general educational content which cannot be omitted. To them should be added all the factors which (in terms of the contents, activities and procedures) are designed to initiate pupils into independent learning; all in all, learning how to learn.
Conclusion On this view language as subject is concerned with developing language competence in reading, writing, speaking and listening. Recognition is also given to personal growth goals, often associated with the more creative and aesthetic aspects of the subject. The aims of foreign language learning are conceived fairly straightforwardly as acquiring the ability to communicate in other languages. The subject curriculum is seen as having the responsibility for developing subject specific knowledge, skills and understanding using language competence as a tool that has been developed in language as subject. The alternative view which is central to the Language in and for Education project recognises the overarching aims of plurilingualism and interculturalism which are relevant to all aspects of the curriculum and which are in turn associated with education for active responsible participatory citizenship, democratic participation and personal growth.
Foreign language teaching is one of the main mediators for intercultural education, and for this reason the person teaching the foreign language should also be the class teacher, who should receive an adequate qualification in foreign language pedagogy. In due course, all prospective teachers should receive initial training in the field of foreign language education. However, pre-service courses should be supplemented by in-service training in order to guarantee that teachers -can work on their language competence, -are informed about new methods in foreign language education, -have the opportunity to exchange materials and develop new concepts, -can participate in exchange programmes so that they can adapt their attitudes, knowledge and skills with respect to intercultural education, -share, explore and develop ideas on how to promote the principle of continuity in foreign language education together with secondary school teachers.
Changes in educational policies are never successful when attempted half-heartedly. Introducing a foreign language in primary schools without initiating an adequate programme of pre- and in-service teacher education would mean just that. The participants of Workshop 8B made this very clear when they accepted the following text as final resolution: "An effective, integrated programme of initial and in- service teacher training is essential to the proper development of modern language teaching in primary schools. Specialised training in primary methodology should be combined with steps to ensure that teachers have the specialised language competence necessary to teach effectively using the foreign language according to the methods being used in these schools.
References -Report on Workshop 4A. Learning and teaching modern languages in primary schools. Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2 - 7 June 1991. Compiled and edited by Anthony Giovanazzi. -Report on Workshop 4B. Learning and teaching modern languages in primary schools. Sèvres, France, 12 - 17 December 1993. Compiled and edited by Anne- Marie Kuperberg
-Report on Workshop 8A. Foreign language education in primary schools. Loccum, Germany, 17 - 22 May 1992. Compiled and edited by Peter Doyé and Christoph Edelhoff. Report on Workshop 8B. Foreign language education in primary schools. Velm, Austria, 7 - 13 May 1995. Compiled and edited by Maria Felberbauer and Dagmar Heindler. The Aims of Language Teaching and Learning Mike Fleming