Presentation on theme: "Professor David Hopkins"— Presentation transcript:
1 Professor David Hopkins “Every School a Great School” Being a relentless focus on improving the learning outcomes of ‘every student’ in ‘every school’ across the whole system … Limestone Coast Region Leader’s Conference, SA Monday and Tuesday, 18th and 19th October 2010Professor David Hopkins1
2 Overview of Workshop – Day One Session One – Every School a Great School - The Big Picture of School ReformProfessional Discussion – Moral purpose, systemic reform and the four drivers for improvementProfessional Activity – SWOT analysisSession Two – The Challenge of LeadershipProfessional Discussion – Effective leadership practices that relate to enhanced student learning, change agent skills and managing adaptive challengesProfessional Activity – School and classroom level conditions scalesSession Three – The Pedagogy of Personalised LearningProfessional Discussion – Personalised learning, the instructional core and a framework for teachingProfessional Activity – Models of teaching jigsaw2
3 Overview of Workshop – Day Two Session One – Professional learning and developmentProfessional Discussion – Differentiated approaches to professional development, classroom observation strategies and developing capacity through the school improvement teamProfessional Activity – Classroom observation activitySession Two – Taking school improvement to scaleProfessional Discussion – Intelligent accountability, networking and systemic reformProfessional Activity – Strategies for assessing regional capacitySession Three – Developing our school improvement journeysProfessional Discussion – Developing a school improvement or networking action plan based on the SWOT analysisProfessional Activity – Presentations of school or network plans3
4 Every School a Great School – The Big Picture of School Reform Session OneEvery School a Great School –The Big Picture of School Reform4
7 Moral Purpose of Schooling I know what my learning objectives are and feel in control of my learningI get to learn lots of interesting and different subjectsI can get a level 4 in English and Maths before I go to secondary schoolI know what good work looks like and can help myself to learnI know if I need extra help or to be challenged to do better I will get the right supportMy parents are involved with the school and I feel I belong hereI can work well with and learn from many others as well as my teacherI enjoy using ICT and know how it can help my learningI know how I am being assessed and what I need to do to improve my workI can get the job that I wantAll these …. whatever my background, whatever my abilities, wherever I start from7
8 Life Scripts and Adventure We all have life scripts, some of us chose to develop it others are forced to do so. Life scripts evolve as the individual confronts direct experience and adapts and assimilates it with their self. Adventure as the purest form of direct experience has the ability to develop ‘life script’ in the most immediate way. ‘Adventure leaders’ create situations where others can develop their own life scripts. As Mahatma Gandhi said – ‘You must be the change you wish to see in the world’8
9 The G100 Communique They concluded their communique in this way - A group of 100 principals from fourteen countries (G100) met at the National Academy of Education Administration (NAEA) in Beijing, China October 2006 to discuss the transformation of and innovation in the world’s education systems.They concluded their communique in this way -We need to ensure that moral purpose is at the fore of all educational debates with our parents, our students, our teachers, our partners, our policy makers and our wider community.We define moral purpose as a compelling drive to do right for and by students, serving them through professional behaviors that ‘raise the bar and narrow the gap’ and through so doing demonstrate an intent, to learn with and from each other as we live together in this world.9
10 High Excellence High Equity – Raising the Bar and Narrowing the Gap 560High excellenceLow equityHigh excellenceHigh equityFinland540U.K.Canada520JapanKoreaU.S.Belgium500SwitzerlandSpainMean performance in reading literacyGermany480Poland460Low excellenceLow equityLow excellenceHigh equity4404206080100120140200 – Variance (variance OECD as a whole = 100)Source: OECD (2001) Knowledge and Skills for Life10
11 Ingredients of successful systems from the PISA studies Systematic and equitable fundingUniversal standards - mirrored in the views of students, parents and school principalsSchool autonomyMix of accountability systems - internal and externalContinuous monitoring of standards and quick interventions when failure to achieve them is identifiedCreating the appropriate environment to achieve the standards setget the right people to become teachersdevelop teachers into effective instructors (PD internal and external)place incentives and differentiated support systems to ensure that every child get the supported that it needFocus on the curriculum and introduce skills required for the 21st CenturyNetworking and innovationExcellence and equity are achievable!
12 ‘Every School a Great School’ as an expression of moral purpose What parents want is for their local school to be a great school.(National Association of School Governors; Education and Skills Select Committee 2004).The three system leadership commitments:primacy of student learning and achievement;relentless focus on reducing within school variation;collaborative working to eradicate between school variation and enhance social equity.12
13 Brief History of Standards in Primary Schools 11 plus dominatedProfessional controlStandards and"Formal""Informal"accountabilityNLNS2004195019601970198019902000201013
14 This map shows in red those LEAs where three quarters of their children were achieving the expected level in English in This provided the clearest possible justification for the introduction of the National Literacy Strategy, and the position in numeracy was very similar.14
15 This map showed the transformation that we had achieved by 2002 This map showed the transformation that we had achieved by And this year we have gone even further…..15
16 4This map showed the transformation that has now been achieved16
17 Distribution of Reading Achievement in 9-10 year olds in 2001 575550525500475450425400375350325300The recent international PIRLS report on reading standards confirmed that we are right to describe our performance as world class.The study showed:Ten year olds in England are the third most able readers in the world, behind Sweden and the NetherlandsEngland is the most successful English-speaking country.There has been a marked increase in our international performance since the mid-1990s. An NFER report in 1996 said that our performance would have put us close to the international average in 1991The study also exploded a number of common mythsTeachers say that the literacy strategy has introduced pupils to a wider range of textsSchools in England use more real books and more longer books than those in other countries.The high performance of our children is related to the broad reading curriculum that they followItalyIsraelSwedenEnglandBulgariaLatviaFranceGreeceCyprusTurkeyKuwaitBelizeLithuaniaHungaryGermanyScotlandIcelandNorwaySingaporeRomaniaSloveniaColombiaArgentinaMoroccoNetherlandsUnited StatesNew ZealandCzech RepublicHong Kong SARSlovak RepublicMoldova, Rep ofRussian FederationInternational Avg.Macedonia, Rep ofIran, Islamic Rep ofCanada (Ontario,Quebec)Source: PIRLS 2001 International Report: IEA’s Study of Reading Literacy Achievement in Primary Schools17
18 New Labour Policy Framework Intervention in inverse proportion to successAmbitious StandardsHigh ChallengeHigh SupportDevolvedresponsibilityAccountabilityAccess to best practice and quality professional developmentGood data and clear targets18
19 Percentage of pupils achieving level 4 or above in Key Stage 2 tests 1998-2003 EnglishMaths807570Percentage65605550199819992000200120022003Test changes in 2003Major changes to writing test/markschemeSignificant changes to maths papers19
20 The Key Question - how do we get there? Most agree that:When standards are too low and too variedsome form of direct state intervention is necessarythe impact of this top-down approach is usually to raise standards.But when:progress plateaus - while a bit more might be squeezed out in some schools , and perhaps a lot in underperforming schools, one must question whether this is still the recipe for sustained reformthere is a growing recognition that to ensure that every student reaches their potential, schools need to lead the next phase of reform.The 64k dollar question is how do we get there?20
21 Towards system wide sustainable reform PrescriptionBuilding CapacityProfessionalismNational PrescriptionEvery School a Great SchoolSchools Leading ReformThe real challenge we all face is to move the system from National Prescription Schools Leading Reform.As the Minister says, to move from a situation where Government delivers policy to one that builds capacity.This is not a chronological shift, it takes time and it is always a blend, but we want to shift the balance.The aim is to go from a) through b) c). When at c) = High Excellence High EquitySystem Leadership21
22 Professional Discussion How do you define ‘moral purpose’ in your school?Do you agree with this analysis of system reform?22
23 Four key drivers to raise achievement and build capacity for the next stage of reform Personalising LearningProfessionalising TeachingBuilding Intelligent AccountabilityNetworking and Collaboration23
24 ‘Joined up learning and teaching’ (i) Personalising Learning‘Joined up learning and teaching’Learning to LearnCurriculum choice & entitlementAssessment for learningStudent Voice‘My Tutor’Interactive web-based learning resource enabling students to tailor support and challenge to their needs and interests.24
25 (ii) Professionalising Teaching ‘Teachers as researchers, schools as learning communities’‘The Edu-Lancet’A peer-reviewedjournal published for practitioners by practitioners & regularly read by the professionto keep abreast of R&D.Enhanced repertoire of learning & teaching strategiesEvidence based practice with time for collective inquiryCollegial & coaching relationshipsTackle within school variation25
26 ‘Balancing internal and external accountability and assessment’ (iii) Building Intelligent Accountability‘Balancing internal and external accountability and assessment’‘Charteredexaminers’Experienced teachers gain certification to oversee rigorous internal assessment as a basis for externally awarded qualifications.Moderated teacher assessment and AfL at all levels‘Bottom-up’ targets for every child and use of pupil performance dataValue added data to help identify strengths / weaknessesRigorous self-evaluation linked to improvement strategies and school profile to demonstrate success26
27 (iv) Networking and Collaboration ‘Disciplined innovation, collaboration and building social capital’Best practice captured and highly specifiedCapacity built to transfer and sustain innovation across systemKeeping the focus on the core purposes of schooling by sustaining a discourse on teaching and learningInclusion and Extended Schooling‘Leading Edge Practice Partnerships’Schools develop exemplary curriculum and pedagogic practices and share with others27
28 4 drivers mould to context through system leadership PersonalisedLearningProfessionalTeachingSYSTEMLEADERSHIPIntelligent AccountabilityNetworks & Collaboration28
29 System Leadership: A Proposition ‘System leaders’ care about and work for the success of other schools as well as their own. They measure their success in terms of improving student learning and increasing achievement, and strive to both raise the bar and narrow the gap(s). Crucially they are willing to shoulder system leadership roles in the belief that in order to change the larger system you have to engage with it in a meaningful way.’29
30 System leaders share five striking characteristics, they: measure their success in terms of improving student learning and strive to both raise the bar and narrow the gap(s).are fundamentally committed to the improvement of teaching and learning.develop their schools as personal and professional learning communities.strive for equity and inclusion through acting on context and culture.understand that in order to change the larger system you have to engage with it in a meaningful way.
31 Professional Discussion How far do the four drivers apply to the your context?Do you agree with this description of system leadership?31
32 Professional Activity SWOT Analysis What are the preconditions of improvement in a school?How does a school organize for improvement?What are the key strategies employed to raise achievement?How does professional learning take place?How are cultures changed and developed?How effective is your own school’s approach to improvement?32
33 The Challenge of Leadership Session TwoThe Challenge of Leadership33
34 The impact of Educational Leadership and the Emergence of System Leadership In order to understand the current role and contribution of leadership in innovative education institutions I will:Discuss the challenges facing school leaders in OECD countries;Identify six key trends on the future of school leaders in England and relate them to Australia;Report on large scale research that links leadership practices with higher levels of student achievement;Propose ‘System Leadership’ as a core practice for meeting the challenges of contemporary education.
35 Background: The OECD Improving School Leadership (ISL) activity An International PerspectiveAustraliaAustriaBelgium (French)Belgium (Flanders)ChileDenmarkFinlandFranceHungaryIrelandIsraelKoreaThe NetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPortugalSloveniaSpainSwedenUnited Kingdom (England)United Kingdom (N. Ireland)United Kingdom (Scotland)Network of expertsInternational organisations
36 School leadership: why does it matter? At the school level, leadership can improve teaching and learning by setting objectives and influencing classroom practiceAt the local level, school leadership can improve equal opportunities by collaborating with other schools and local communitiesAt the system level, school leadership is essential for successful education reformSystem levelLocal levelSchoolClassroom
37 School leadership: a policy priority The role of leadership has changed dramaticallySchool autonomy:“Running a small business”Administration and managementHuman and financial resourcesAccountability for outcomes:A new culture of evaluationAssessment, (self) evaluation, quality assurance, public reportingNew approaches to teaching and learningMore diverse student populationsMore emphasis on raising performance of allNeed to invest in the knowledge and skills of leaders on the job
38 School leadership: the challenges Role expansion & intensificationMore and more tasks have been added to school leaders’ workload.Most of the leadership tasks are carried out by one individualLack of coherent frameworks to define and distribute the new rolesInsufficient preparation and trainingMost school leaders are former teachers. Experience as a teacher does not guarantee that leaders have the knowledge and skills necessary to run a schoolLack of systematic and career-staged training
39 School leadership: the challenges Shortages in leadership personnelThe current workforce is retiring, but few people are interested in moving up to leadershipApplication numbers are decreasing: 15 out of 22 participating countries report difficulties in finding a sufficient number of qualified candidatesUnattractive working conditions (1)Barriers to potentially interested candidates:Long working hoursPoor work-life balanceInadequate salaries
40 School leadership: the challenges Unattractive working conditions (2)Traditionally most principals had lifelong tenureInflexible and hierarchical career structuresFew opportunities for career developmentProblems of principal burnout & lack of opportunities to move up to new tasks
41 School leadership: the policy (Re)defining school leadership responsibilitiesDistributing school leadershipDeveloping the knowledge and skills of school leadersMaking school leadership a more attractive profession
42 Challenges facing School Leaders in England There are a set of key challenges at the heart of school leadership. These are:ensuring consistently good teaching and learning;integrating a sound grasps of basics knowledge and skills within a broad and balanced curriculum;managing behaviour and attendance;strategically managing resources and the environment;building the school as a professional learning community; anddeveloping partnerships beyond the school to encourage parental support for learning and new learning opportunities.There is also a set of specific contemporary challenges such as:the synergy between standards and welfare;personalisation;the implementation of workforce reform;the impetus for school diversity and parental choice;the progression of particular groups of students.
43 Professional Discussion How far does the OECD research capture the reality of leadership on the Limestone Coast?How similar are the challenges facing school leaders in England similar to those of leaders on the Limestone Coast?
44 ‘Seven Strong Claims about School Leadership’ School leadership is second only to classroom instruction as an influence on student learning.Almost all successful (school) leaders draw on the same repertoire of basic leadership practices.It is the enactment of the same basic leadership practices – not the practices themselves – that is responsive to the context.School leaders improve pupil learning indirectly through their influence on staff motivation and working conditions.School leadership has a greater influence on schools and pupils when it is widely distributed.Some patterns of leadership distribution are much more effective than others.A small handful of personal “traits” explain a high proportion of the variation (such as being open minded, flexible, persistent and optimistic) in leader effectiveness.44
46 Structural Equation Modelling – Connecting Headteacher Effectiveness and Pupil OutcomesBuilding Vision, SettingDirectionsCulture & ClimateAltered PracticesPedagogic FocusStudent & Staff Engagement & MotivationAcademicPersonal and SocialBehaviourAffectivePace / TimingSchool- ImprovementGroupFSMSector- EthnicDiversitySchool sizeUrban/rural- Level ofdeprivationin areaUnderstanding & Developing PeopleSuccession planningMonitoring and accountabilityLeadership- Time inpost- Internalstates- Provision ofleadership- Age- ValuesPace / TimingOrganisational RedesignDistributive leadership practicesCorrespondence with teaching & learning purposesPace / TimingManaging Teaching and Learning- Innovative practices- Use of data
47 Key Messages Building vision and setting directions The Head is the driver for creating and realising the school’s vision.Creating a clear vision for the school (usually with the support of the SLT).Creating the right conditions for the realisation of the school’s vision:releasing stuff that are reluctant to change; andstrategically building the practical blocks for the realisation of the school’s vision (usually with the support of SLT)Propagating the school’s vision.
48 Key Messages Understanding and developing people Most school leaders take succession planning very seriously.Staff motivation is increased when trust between the head teacher and staff is built.School leaders impose strong accountability frameworks and monitor practice.CPD is strategically built, is predominantly delivered internally and is of high quality.Becoming a training school impacts positively on teaching and learning.
49 Key Messages Organisational Re-design All secondary schools have undergone some sort of organisational re-design.Changes are specific to context.The most powerful forms for improving pupil outcomes are:the restructuring of the SLT;the creation of a pastoral team;distributed leadership – some forms as more effective than others;collaborating with other schools, Heads and external agencies - collaboration is most effective when all staff are engaged; andparental engagement.
50 Key Messages Teaching and Learning All schools focus relentlessly on teaching and learning.Managing teaching and learning depends on context and pupil needsA disciplined environment is important for learning.The three part lesson has been instrumental for the initial phases of school improvement. However, to sustain improvement it seems that innovation and risk taking in teaching and learning are required.The use of data, AfL and the systematic tracking of pupil progress improves pupil outcomes.Enrichment activities support students motivation to learn and build up their confidence.
51 Summary – Leadership and Learning Certain leadership practices are effective in all contexts (vision, direction, developing people, distributing leadership, focus on T and L and data driven developments).Effective leaders know when to switch strategies.Leadership levers -are the same but utilised differently in different contexts.Distributed leadership as a means to an end rather than an end in itself.Proximity of leadership practice to learning (instruction) has a positive impact on student outcomes.Effective leaders maximise formal and informal leadership structures and practices.Effective leaders instil norms of school renewal and regeneration.
52 Deprivation remains a key determinant of performance at school and pupil level – but It can be done! ‘Affluent’ Pupils‘Deprived’Pupils52
53 These Twelve Secondary Schools … Are in the highest category of deprivation (35% or more FSM, yet, they all:Achieve over 80% good GCSE passes at 16, with a consistent trajectory of improvementHave at least two recent inspection reports judged as ‘outstanding’Received outstanding grades for teaching and learning, leadership and the school overallRecord a pattern of high contextual value added scores from Key Stage 2 (age 11) to Key Stage 4 (age 16)
54 They defy the association of poverty with outcomes Yet the scale of challenge faced by these schools is considerable:Higher than average proportion come form poor or disturbed family backgrounds where support for learning and expectation of achievement are lowMany students are subject to emotional and psychological tension and regular attendance is a problemThey are open to a range of ‘urban ills’ that often characterise poorer communities – drugs and alcohol, peer pressure of gangs and fashion and overt racism which tend to attract behaviour which ranges from anti-social to violent.Getting these students ready and willing to learn is a constant challenge, which the schools strive to meet by providing a better daytime alternative to being at home or on the streets.
55 21st Century Schools succeed for the following reasons: They excel at what they do not just occasionally but for a high proportion of the timeThey prove constantly that disadvantage need not be a barrier to achievementThey put their students first, invest in their staff and nurture their communitiesThey have strong values and high expectations that are applied consistently and are never relaxedThey fulfil individual potential through providing outstanding teaching, rich opportunities for learning and encouragement and support for each studentThey are highly inclusive, having complete regard for the educational progress, personal development and well being of every studentTheir achievements do not happen by chance, but by highly reflective, carefully planned and implemented strategiesThey operate with a very high degree of internal consistencyThey are constantly looking for ways to improve furtherThey have outstanding and well distributed leadership
56 At the heart of this is outstanding leadership practice The Heads of these schools are not by and large iconic – they have taken on challenging schools out of a deep commitment to improving the lot of their students and communities. Moral purpose may be at the heart of it but successful Heads need a range of attributes and skills if they are to succeed in dealing with the challenges presented by turbulent and complex communities.Clear and unshakeable principles and sense of purposeVigilance and visibilityCourage and convictionPredisposition to immediate action, letting nothing slipInsistence on Consistency of approach, individually and across the organisationDrive and determinationBelief in peopleAbility to communicateleadership by exampleEmotional intelligenceTireless energy
57 A change for the better … Was comfortable and happyHad a strong pastoral system although this was reliant on personalities rather than systemsHad little culture of change and improvementHad a questionable work ethicSet expectations around happy, well-adjusted students with little discussion of whether they should also achieve higher academic levelsHad a well liked head who was easygoing, genial and supportive but not challenging, often absent and who allowed poor staff to remain in post.Faced initial staff resentment with data; there was a belief that the school was happy and did not need to changeGradually changed the culture over a few yearsRetained what was goodMaintained a relentlessly positive attitude showed high energyWas a lateral thinker, prepared to take a gambleHad a very ‘can do’ attitude and said ‘yes’ wherever possibleWas prepared to tackle difficult issues such as weeding out poor staffTrusted and motivated staffWas approachable and relaxedMade good use of promotion to bring alienated staff onsideUsed the wider senior team to involve more staff as leadersBefore the change of head teacher, the school:The new head teacher:
58 It is not surprising …… that a number of themes emerged which were common to most or all of the schools. These included, for example, attention to the quality of teaching and learning; the assessment and tracking of student’s progress; target-setting, support and intervention; attracting teachers and growing leaders.It is important to stress that the success of these schools is due not simply to what they do but the fact that it is rigorously distilled and applied good practice, cleverly selected and modified to fit the needs of the school. The schools do not value innovation for its own sake, but only when it adds something extra. The practices described here are not ‘off the peg’ tricks; they mesh together and work synchronously.
59 Diana’s Line of Success Coming out of special measures ( )Enriching teaching and learning environmentMaking school secureImproving teaching and learning in classroomsLeading by exampleEstablishing a student behaviour policy and improving attendanceVision and valuesDeveloping resources2. Taking ownership: an inclusive agenda (2000–2002)Vision and values: developing school’s missionDistributing leadershipPersisting priority on teaching and learning:becoming a thinking schoolcurriculum developmentPerformance management and CPDInclusivity: integrating students from different social and cultural backgroundsFocus on monitoring and evaluationOfsted Inspection 2007 (Outstanding)Ofsted Inspection (Very Good)Success of leadership in terms of effect upon broad pupil outcomes3. Developing creativity ( )Restructuring leadershipInvolving communityAssessment (personalised)Placing staff well-being at centre of school improvementBroadening horizons4. Everyone a leader (2005- present)Creative partnership and creativitySelf evaluationPersonalised learningOfsted Inspection (Special Measures)2003199920002001200220042005onward
60 OFSTED and SATs Results Coming out of special measures ( )Enriching teaching and learning environmentMaking school secureImproving teaching and learning in classroomsLeading by exampleEstablishing a student behaviour policy and improving attendanceVision and valuesDeveloping resources2. Taking ownership: an inclusive agenda (2000–2002)Vision and values: developing school’s missionDistributing leadershipPersisting priority on teaching and learning:becoming a thinking schoolcurriculum developmentPerformance management and CPDInclusivity: integrating students from different social and cultural backgroundsFocus on monitoring and evaluation3. Developing creativity ( )Restructuring leadershipInvolving communityAssessment (personalised)Placing staff well-being at centre of school improvementBroadening horizons4. Everyone a leader (2005- present)Creative partnership and creativitySelf evaluationPersonalised learningSuccess of leadership in terms of effect upon broad pupil outcomes
61 Act as a Community Leader Work as a Change Agent Managing Teaching and LearningDeveloping OrganisationsPersonal DevelopmentPartner another School Facing Difficulties and Improve itMoral PurposeLead a Successful Educational Improvement PartnershipStrategic AcumenDeveloping PeopleLead and Improve a School in Challenging Circumstances
62 Leadership for Learning Setting direction Total commitment to enable every learner to reach their potential Ability to translate vision into whole school programmesManaging Teaching and LearningEnsure every child is inspired and challenged through personalized learningDevelop a high degree of clarity about and consistency of teaching qualityDeveloping people Enable students to become more active learnersDevelop schools as professional learning communitiesDeveloping the organization Create an evidence-based schoolExtend an organization’s vision of learning to involve networks62
63 System Leadership Roles A range of emerging roles, including heads who:develop and lead a successful educational improvement partnership across local communities to support welfare and potentialchoose to lead and improve a school in extremely challenging circumstancespartner another school facing difficulties and improve it. This category includes Executive Heads and leaders of more informal improvement arrangementsact as curriculum and pedagogic innovators who develop and then transfer best practice across the systemwork as change agents or experts leaders as National Leader of Education, School Improvement Partner, Consultant Leader.63
64 Professional Discussion How far does the model of system leadership capture the reality of leadership on the Limestone Coast?How far does this approach to leadership mirror the research of Viviane Robinson and her colleagues and your self assessment against their dimensions?
65 Professional Activity School Level Diagnostic Enquiry and ReflectionPlanningInvolvementStaff DevelopmentCo-ordinationLeadership
66 The Pedagogy of Personalised Learning Session ThreeThe Pedagogy of Personalised Learning66
67 Effect Size of Teaching McKinsey & Company, 2007:11Student Performance50th percentile100th percentilepercentileAge 8Age 11Students with high performing teacherStudents with low performing teacher90th percentile37th percentile53 percentile points
68 Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input in the USA (Levy and Murnane)Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distributionBut this is not just about producing more of the same skills, we have also seen significant shifts in the nature of skills that are in use in the OECD’s economies.This chart shows how the composition of the US work force has changed between 1970 and Work involving routine manual input, the jobs of the typical factory worker, was down significantly. Non-routine manual work, things we do with our hands, but in ways that are not so easily put into formal algorithms, was down too, albeit with much less change over recent years – and that is easy to understand because you cannot easily computerise the bus driver or outsource your hairdresser.All that is not surprising, but here is where the interesting story begins: Among the skill categories represented here, routine cognitive input, that is cognitive work that you can easily put into the form of algorithms and scripts saw the sharpest decline in demand over the last couple of decades, with a decline by almost 8% in the share of jobs. So those middle class white collar jobs that involve the application of routine knowledge, are most at threat today. And that is where schools still put a lot of their focus and what we value in multiple choice accountability systems.The point is, that the skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the skills that are easiest to digitise, automatise and offshore. Where are the winners in this process? These are those who engage in expert thinking, up 8% - and complex communication, up almost 14%.The dilemma of schools:The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, automate and outsource
69 “What does it mean to be educated “What does it mean to be educated?” at any particular phase of educationBeing educated at any particular age has four central elements:a breadth of knowledge gained from a curricula entitlement;a range of skills on a developmental continuum that reflects increasing depth at ages 7, 11, 14,16, and in many cases, 18;a range of learning experiences;a set of key products, projects or artifacts.It also means that students are sufficiently articulate to:sustain employability through basic skills;apply their knowledge and skills in different contexts;choose from and learn in a range of post-14 study (assuming an entitlement curriculum up until then);draw on wider experiences to inform further learning and choice.Most educational systems use examination results as a proxy measure for this range of quality outcomes
70 “All our students will be literate, numerate and curious … “
71 I wrote (with Bruce Joyce) some time ago that: Learning experiences are composed of content, process and social climate. As teachers we create for and with our children opportunities to explore and build important areas of knowledge, develop powerful tools for learning, and live in humanizing social conditions.71
72 Powerful Learning … Integrate prior and new knowledge Is the ability of learners to respond successfully to the tasks they are set, as well as the task they set themselves In particular, to:Integrate prior and new knowledgeAcquire and use a range of learning skillsSolve problems individually and in groupsThink carefully about their successes and failuresAccept that learning involves uncertainty and difficultyAll this has been termed “meta-cognition” – it is the learners’ ability to take control over their own learning processes.72
73 A Typology of Skills These skills fall into three categories: Functional Skills: literacy, numeracy and ICT.Thinking and Learning Skills: are the skills young people need to acquire in order to become effective learners. Gaining mastery of these skills equips students to raise their achievement by developing their ability to:improve their achievement by applying a wide range of learning approaches in different subjects;learn how to learn, with the capability to monitor, evaluate, and change the ways in which they think and learn;become independent learners, knowing how to generate their own ideas, acquire knowledge and transfer their learning to different contexts.Personal Skills: are the skills young people need to acquire in order to develop their personal effectiveness. Gaining mastery of these skills equips students to manage themselves and to develop effective social and working relations.
74 Professional Discussion The Key QuestionWhat teaching strategies do I and my colleagues have in our repertoires to respond to the student diversity that walks through our classroom doors?74
75 Elephant in the Classroom - 1 Confusing people and practice is deeply rooted in the culture of schools, and it is especially resilient because it resides in the beliefs and the language of school people. We speak of ‘gifted’ or ‘natural’ teachers, for example, without ever thinking about the implications of that language for how people improve their practice. If practice is a gift that falls out the sky onto people, then the likelihood that we will improve practice at any scale at all is minimal. There are only so many sunbeams to go around, and there aren’t enough for everyone. That is the first problem.
76 Elephant in the Classroom - 2 The second stems from the first. It is that in education there is no common agreed on shared practices or shared understanding of the cause and effect relationship between teaching and learning. This is not to say that there is no agreement on curriculum content, or that some teachers do not have a clear philosophy about linking teaching to learning. What it is to say is that in teaching one’s practice in the sense we are using it here is based not on taste or style, but rather on evidence and that this practice is open up to public scrutiny and one holds oneself and each other accountable for that practice.
77 Focus on the Instructional Core TEACHING and LEARNING STRATEGIES CURRICULUMPOWERFULLEARNINGTEACHING and LEARNING STRATEGIESSTUDENT ENGAGEMENT
78 Intervening in the ‘Instructional Core’ Increases in student learning occur only as a consequence of improvements in the level of content, teachers’ knowledge and skill and student engagement.If you change any single element of the instructional core, you have to change the other two to affect student learning.The tasks students do predict their performance; so the real accountability lies in the tasks the students perform.We learn to do the work by doing the work: people have to engage in sustained description and analysis of instructional practice before they can acquire either the expertise or the authority to judge it.In developing a practice around the instructional core - description comes before analysis, analysis before prediction, and prediction before evaluation.
79 What is ‘Professional Practice’? By practice we mean something quite specific. We mean a set of protocols and processes for observing, analyzing, discussing and understanding instruction that can be used to improve student learning at scale. The practice works because it creates a common discipline and focus among practitioners with a common purpose and set of problems.The real insight here is that you can maintain all the values and commitments that make you a person and still give yourself permission to change your practice. Your practice is an instrument for expressing who you are as a professional; it is not who you are.
80 Three ways of thinking about Teaching Teaching ModelsReflectionTeachingSkillsTeaching Relationships
81 Teaching Skills Active teaching Engaged time – ‘time on task’ Structuring informationEffective questioningConsistent successAnd … ???81
82 Some Theory of Action Principles When teacher directed instruction becomes more enquiryfocused the level of student engagement increasesBy consistently adopting protocols for teaching andlearning student behaviour and engagement is enhancedIf teachers use cooperative group structures / techniquesto mediate between whole class instruction and students carrying out tasks then the academic performance of the whole class will increaseWhen teachers systematically use higher order questioning the level of student understanding is deepenedWhen feedback contains reference to practical actions student behaiour becomes more positive and consistentWhen peer assessment (AfL) is consistently utilized student engagement, learning and achievement increasesWhen learning tasks are purposeful, clearly defined, differentiated and challenging, (according to the students Zone of Proximal Development), then the more powerful and precise the learning for all students
83 Teaching Relationships Expectation effects on student achievement are likely to occur both directly through opportunity to learn (differences in the amount and nature of exposure to content and opportunities to engage in various types of academic activities) and indirectly through differential treatment that is likely to affect students' self-concepts, attributional inferences, or motivation.Good, T.L. and Brophy, J.E. (1994)Looking In Classrooms (2nd ed)83
84 Teaching ModelsOur toolbox is the models of teaching, actually models for learning, that simultaneously define the nature of the content, the learning strategies, and the arrangements for social interaction that create the learning contexts of our students. For example, in powerful classrooms students learn models for:Extracting information and ideas from lectures and presentationsMemorising informationBuilding hypotheses and theoriesAttaining concepts and how to invent themUsing metaphors to think creativelyWorking effectively with other to initiate and carry out co-operative tasks84
86 Professor David Hopkins “Every School a Great School” Being a relentless focus on improving the learning outcomes of ‘every student’ in ‘every school’ across the whole system … Limestone Coast Region Leader’s Conference, SA Monday and Tuesday, 18th and 19th October 2010Professor David Hopkins86
87 Overview of Workshop – Day Two Session One – Professional learning and developmentProfessional Discussion – Differentiated approaches to professional development, classroom observation strategies and developing capacity through the school improvement teamProfessional Activity – Classroom observation activitySession Two – Taking school improvement to scaleProfessional Discussion – Intelligent accountability, networking and systemic reformProfessional Activity – Strategies for assessing regional capacitySession Three – Developing our school improvement journeysProfessional Discussion – Developing a school improvement or networking action plan based on the SWOT analysisProfessional Activity – Presentations of school or network plans87
88 Professional Discussion Reflect individually and then share on tables the learning from yesterday’s workshop
89 Professional learning and development Session FourProfessional learning and development89
90 High Excellence High Equity – Raising the Bar and Narrowing the Gap 560High excellenceLow equityHigh excellenceHigh equityFinland540U.K.Canada520JapanKoreaU.S.Belgium500SwitzerlandSpainMean performance in reading literacyGermany480Poland460Low excellenceLow equityLow excellenceHigh equity4404206080100120140200 – Variance (variance OECD as a whole = 100)Source: OECD (2001) Knowledge and Skills for Life90
91 Three ways of thinking about Teaching Teaching ModelsReflectionTeachingSkillsTeaching Relationships
92 Some Theory of Action Principles When teacher directed instruction becomes more enquiryfocused the level of student engagement increasesBy consistently adopting protocols for teaching andlearning student behaviour and engagement is enhancedIf teachers use cooperative group structures / techniquesto mediate between whole class instruction and students carrying out tasks then the academic performance of the whole class will increaseWhen teachers systematically use higher order questioning the level of student understanding is deepenedWhen feedback contains reference to practical actions student behaiour becomes more positive and consistentWhen peer assessment (AfL) is consistently utilized student engagement, learning and achievement increasesWhen learning tasks are purposeful, clearly defined, differentiated and challenging, (according to the students Zone of Proximal Development), then the more powerful and precise the learning for all students
93 Teaching ModelsOur toolbox is the models of teaching, actually models for learning, that simultaneously define the nature of the content, the learning strategies, and the arrangements for social interaction that create the learning contexts of our students. For example, in powerful classrooms students learn models for:Extracting information and ideas from lectures and presentationsMemorising informationBuilding hypotheses and theoriesAttaining concepts and how to invent themUsing metaphors to think creativelyWorking effectively with other to initiate and carry out co-operative tasks93
94 Reaching for the “Double Sigma Effect” Number of studentsAchievement of students
95 Effect Size of Teaching Strategies Information Processing – a mean effect size over 1.0 for higher order outcomesCooperative Learning – a mean effect between 0.3 to 0.7Personal Models – a mean effect of 0.3 or more for cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomesBehavioural Models – a mean effect between 0.5 to 1.0. Best representatives are for short term treatments looking at behavioural or knowledge of content outcomes
96 I wrote (with Bruce Joyce) some time ago that: Learning experiences are composed of content, process and social climate. As teachers we create for and with our children opportunities to explore and build important areas of knowledge, develop powerful tools for learning, and live in humanizing social conditions.96
97 ‘You must be the change you wish to see in the world’ Leading Change‘You must be the change you wish to see in the world’Fullan – Meaning of Educational Change
98 Leadership as Adaptive Work Technical SolutionsAdaptive WorkSystem LeadershipTechnical problems can be solved through applying existing know how - adaptive challenges create a gap between a desired state and reality that cannot be closed using existing approaches alone98
99 The Nature of Adaptive Work An adaptive challenge is a problem situation for which solutions lie outside current ways of operating.Adaptive challenges demand learning, because ‘people are the problem’ and progress requires new ways of thinking & operating.Mobilising people to meet adaptive challenges, then, is at the heart of leadership practice.Ultimately, adaptive work requires us to reflect on the moral purpose by which we seek to thrive and demands diagnostic enquiry into the realities we face that threaten the realisation of those purposes.From Ron Heifetz – ‘Adaptive Work’ (in Bentley and Wilsdon 2003)99
101 The ‘Iceberg Model’ of Educational Change Content & StructuresValues and BeliefsBehaviours
102 Three Phases of Educational Change InitiationImplementationInstitutionalisationTime“The Implementation Dip”
103 Change Agent Skills - Initiation The initiation phase is about deciding to embark on innovation, and of developing commitment towards the process. The key activities in the initiation phase are the decision to start, and a review of the school's current state as regards the particular change. This is a list of factors that make for successful initiation:the innovation should be tied to a local agenda and high profile local needa clear, well-structured approach to changean active advocate or champion who understands the innovation and support itactive initiation to start the innovation (top down is OK under certain conditions)good quality innovation
104 Change Agent Skills - Implementation Implementation is the phase of the process that has received the most attention. It is the phase of attempted use of the innovation. The key activities occurring during implementation are the carrying out of action plans, the developing and sustaining of commitment, the checking of progress and overcoming problems. The key factors making for success at this stage are:clear responsibility for orchestration/co-ordination (Head, Co-ordinator, External Consultant).shared control over implementation (top down NOT OK); good cross-hierarchical work and relations; empowerment of both individuals and the school.mix of pressure, insistence on 'doing it right', and support.adequate and sustained staff development and in-service.rewards for teachers early in the process (empowerment, collegiality, meeting needs, classroom help, load reduction, supply cover, expenses, resources).
105 Change Agent Skills - Institutionalisation Institutionalisation is the phase when innovation and change stop being regarded as something new and become part of the school's usual way of doing things. The move from implementation to institutionalisation often involves the transformation of a pilot project, to a school wide initiative, often without the advantage of the previously available funding. Key activities at this stage are:an emphasis on 'embedding' the change within the school’s structures, its organisation and resourcesthe elimination of competing or contradictory practicesstrong and purposeful links to other change efforts, the curriculum and classroom teachingwidespread use in the school and local areaan adequate bank of local facilitators, (e.g. advisory teachers) for skills training.
106 Matt Miles on Change Agent Skills TRUSTDIAGNOSISPLANWORKING IN GROUPSKNOWHOWCONFIDENCE TO CONTINUE
107 Change Agent Meta Skills Besides the specific activities required during each of the phases, there are also a series of ‘cross cutting’ or generic skill clusters that characterise the behaviours of effective change agents.to generate trustto understand and diagnose the state of the school’s organisationto plan into the medium term and to see the bigger pictureto work productively in groupsto access the required technical resources and advice be it research, good practice, or specifications of teaching and learningto give people the confidence to continue.
108 The Experience of Educational Change change takes place over time;change initially involves anxiety and uncertainty;technical and psychological support is crucial;the learning of new skills is incremental and developmental;successful change involves pressure and support within a collaborative setting;organisational conditions within and in relation to the school make it more or less likely that the school improvement will occur.108
109 Joined up Professional Development for the Whole Workforce … in Schools Make space and time for ‘deep learning’ and teacher enquiryUse the research on learning and teaching to impact on student achievementStudying classroom practice increases the focus on student learningBy working in small groups the whole school staff can become a nurturing unitInvest in school-based processes for improving teacher’s pedagogical content knowledgeThis takes me to my concluding thought. I believe we are living in exciting times in education. There is national and international interest in levering improved student outcomes through a massive effort to understand learning and improve teaching. Just before I was about to write this paragraph I happened to pick up the May 28 issue of Education Week which reported that the “…National Science Foundation in the USA is planning a 10-year effort to underwrite research to unlock the secrets of how people learn and how to put those lessons into practice.” They plan to spend $20m in the first two years to get things underway. This will, of course, be a top down process, but I see many signs of bottom-up interest in understanding learning and improving teaching among ordinary teachers in schools everywhere I travel. When there is both a top-down and a bottom-up interest of this magnitude, then big things are likely to happen. I feel both excited and optimistic about what cognitive scientists, neurologists and educational researchers are going to find out over the next few years, but equally by what staff in schools working with university colleagues in the disciplines are going to create in terms of a new kind of pedagogical content knowledge that has the capacity to transform teaching and learning.
110 Make space and time for ‘deep learning’ and teacher enquiry Whole staff PD days on teaching and learning and school improvement planning as well as ‘curriculum tours’ to share the work done in departments or working groups;Inter-departmental meetings to discuss teaching strategies;Workshops run inside the school on teaching strategies by Cadre group members and external support;Partnership teaching and peer coaching;The design and execution of collaborative enquiry activities, which are, by their nature, knowledge-generating.110
111 Six Approaches to Staff Development Achieving ConsistencySpecific Observation SchedulesJapanese ‘Lesson Study’CoachingInstructional RoundsPeer Coaching
112 Achieving Conisistency – The Robert Clack “good lesson” In terms of teaching and learning, three residential courses were held for teachers in the first term of Paul’s headship, out of which emerged the staff-created model of the Robert Clack Good Lesson. Regardless of subject, all departments explain the objective, content and process of each lesson, followed by a summary and a review.A modular curriculum was also introduced, whereby all pupils are tested to National Curriculum standards at each half and end of term in every subject. Not only do teachers know exactly where each pupil stands, but parents get a short and long report each term, which charts their children’s progress and behaviour.
113 Specific Observation Schedules Higher order questionsDealing with low level disruptionWait timeDifferentiationLevel of taskPaceetc
114 Japanese “Lesson Study” Choose a research themeFocus the researchCreate the lessonTeach and observe the lessonDiscuss the lessonRevise the lessonRepeat the process with another teacherDisseminate and share the lesson
115 Structuring Staff Development WorkshopUnderstanding of Key Ideas and PrinciplesModelling and DemonstrationPractice in Non-threatening SituationsWorkplaceImmediate and Sustained PracticeCollaboration and Peer CoachingReflection and Action ResearchWith thanks to Bruce Joyce115115
116 The Instructional Rounds Process The network convenes in a school for a rounds visit hosted by a member or members of the network. The focus of the visit is a problem of practice related to teaching and learning that the school is currently wrestling with.The network divides into smaller group that visit a rotation of four or five classrooms for approximately thirty minutes. In each classroom network participants collect descriptive evidence related to the focus of the problem of practice.After completing the classroom observations, the entire group assembles in a common location to work through a process description, analysis and prediction. The group analyses the evidence for patterns and look at how what they have seen explains or not the observable student performance in the school.Finally the network develops a series of ‘theory of action’ principles from the analysis of the observations and discusses the next level of work recommendations for the school and system to make progress on the problem of practice.
117 Peer CoachingPeer coaching teams of two or three are much more effective than larger groups.These groups are more effective when the entire staff is engaged in school improvement.Peer coaching works better when Heads and Deputies participate in training and practice.The effects are greater when formative study of student learning is embedded in the process.117
118 Elmore’s Principles for Large Scale Improvement Maintain a tight instructional focus sustained over timeRoutinise accountability for practice and performance in face-to-face relationshipsReduce isolation and open practice up to direct observation, analysis, and criticismExercise differential treatment based on performance and capacity, not on volunteerismDevolve increased discretion based on practice and performance
119 Professional Discussion How do you develop a repertoire of teaching models in your school?What exactly is the role of the teacher?What are the implications for staff development?What are the monitoring mechanisms implemented so as to ensure the effectiveness of the model?
120 Professional Activity Classroom Diagnostic Authentic RelationshipsBoundaries and expectationsPlanning for TeachingTeaching RepertoirePedagogic PartnershipReflection on Teaching
121 Taking school improvement to scale Session FiveTaking school improvement to scale121
122 A Framework for School Improvement Priority for School DevelopmentConditions for Classroom DevelopmentConditions for School DevelopmentStrategyEnhanced Student Learning and Teacher Development122122
123 A Three Phase Strategy for School Improvement Phase One: Establishing the ProcessPhase Two: Going Whole SchoolPhase Three: Sustaining Momentum123123
124 Phase One: Establishing the Process Commitment to the School Improvement ApproachSelection of Learning Leaders and School Improvement GroupEnquiring into the Strengths and Weaknesses of the SchoolDesigning the Whole School ProgrammeSeeding the Whole School Approach124124
125 Devise your programme around core values Every school can improveImprovement is assessed in terms of enhanced pupil outcomesEvery individual in the school has a contribution to makeStart from where the school is, but set high goalsModel good practice with precisionRaise expectations of what is possible.125125
126 Preparing for School Improvement Pre-conditionsSchool Level PreparationsUnifying FocusMeansCommitment to School ImprovementGeneral consensus on valuesUnderstanding of key principlesShared valuesA mandate from staffLeadership potentialIdentification of change agentsWillingness to make structural changesCapacity for improvementImprovement Theme-An enquiry into Teaching and LearningSchool Improvement Strategy
127 School Improvement Group Development Phase 1 - Uncertainty about focusWhat is School Improvement?What is the role of the SIG group?Where is it all going? It’s hard to make things happen.Phase 2 - Clearer about focusUsing existing structures in new ways, e.g. department meetings with single item research agendas.New ways of working.Beginning to shift from staff development mode to school improvement mode.Phase 3 - Change/renewal of the SIG groupEstablishment of research culture within the schoolInvolvement of students as researchersThe school generates its own theory127127
128 Phase Two: Going Whole School The Initial Whole School PD Day(s)Establishing the Curriculum and Teaching FocusEstablishing the Learning Teams:Curriculum groupingsPeer coaching or ‘buddy’ groupsThe Initial Cycle of EnquirySharing Initial Success on the Curriculum Tour128128
129 Curriculum Tour WHOLE SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT PRIORITY An Enquiry into Teaching and LearningDept. A(Inductive Teaching)Dept. B(Inductive Teaching)Dept C(Inductive Teaching)StageIStageII‘Curriculum Tour’StageIIIGroup WorkMemorySynecticsWHOLE SCHOOL WORKING TOWARDS REPERTOIRE OFTEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES129129
130 In addition, SIG members are involved in: Out of school training sessions on capacity building and teaching and learning;The pursuit of their own knowledge in support of their role – about leadership, the management and implementation of change, the design of professional development activities etc.;Planning meetings in school;Consultancy to school working groups;Observation and in-classroom support;Study visits to other schools within the network.130130
131 Phase Three: Sustaining Momentum Establishing Further Cycles of EnquiryBuilding Teacher Learning into the ProcessSharpening the Focus on Student LearningFinding Ways of Sharing Success and Building NetworksReflecting on the Culture of the School and Department131131
132 Action Plans for Student Achievement Specific targets related to pupils’ learning, progress and achievement that are clear and unambiguous;Teaching and learning strategies designed to meet the targets;Evidence to be gathered to judge the success in achieving the targets set;Modifications to management arrangements to enable targets to be met;Tasks to be done to achieve the targets set and who is responsible for doing them;Time it will take;How much it will cost in terms of the budget, staff time, staff development and other resources;Responsibility for monitoring the implementation of the plan;Evaluating its impact over time.132132
133 Moving to Scale Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Cohorts of 6 - 8 Schools 6 - 8 Members of School Improvement GroupYear Year Year 3PLANCohort A | | ……………………….Cohort B | | …………Cohort C | | ………….....133133
134 Processes of School Improvement The journey of school improvementA clear reform narrative is created, and seen by staff to be consistently applied, with: a vision and urgency that translates into clear principles for action.Organizing the key strategiesImprovement activities are selected and linked together strategically; supported by robust and highly reliable school systems with clear SMT roles in key areas.Professional learning at the heart of the processImprovement strategy informs CPD; knowledge is gained, verified & refined by staff to underpin improvement; networking is used to manage risk and discipline practice.Cultures are changed and developedProfessional ethos and values that supports capacity building are initiated, implemented and institutionalized, so that a culture of disciplined action replaces excessive control.134
135 The Logic of System Leadership Learning Potential of all StudentsRepertoire of Learning SkillsModels of Learning - Tools for TeachingEmbedded in Curriculum Context and Schemes of WorkWhole School Emphasis on High Expectations andPedagogic ConsistencySharing Schemes of Work and Curriculum Across and Between Schools, Clusters, Districts, LEAs and Nationally135135
136 Lead and Improve a School in Challenging Circumstances Act as a Community LeaderWork as aChange AgentManaging Teaching and LearningDeveloping OrganisationsPersonal DevelopmentPartner another School Facing Difficulties and Improve itMoral PurposeLead a Successful Educational Improvement PartnershipStrategic AcumenDeveloping PeopleLead and Improve a School in Challenging Circumstances
137 System Leadership Roles A range of emerging roles, including heads who:develop and lead a successful educational improvement partnership across local communities to support welfare and potentialchoose to lead and improve a school in extremely challenging circumstancespartner another school facing difficulties and improve it. This category includes Executive Heads and leaders of more informal improvement arrangementsact as curriculum and pedagogic innovators who develop and then transfer best practice across the systemWork as change agents or experts leaders as National Leader of Education, School Improvement Partner, Consultant Leader.137
138 The school got out of Special Measures! Supporting a school in Special measures The Head teacher as a consultant leaderSupport an acting head rather than ‘take over’Draw detail plans for improvement which included:Diagnosis of the key practices the neighbouring school needed to developClarity on Robert Clack’s teaching and learning and behaviour systemsA visit to Robert Clack for staff in early September to witness the behaviour management, assemblies, and teaching and learning in action so as to give an insight into what was possible in very similar circumstancesThe export and refinement of these systems from one school into the other, employing key staff from Robert Clack to deliver, in particular, Ofsted demands for immediate improvements in behaviourA 2 days a week consultant leadership to support implementation of the behaviour systemsThe school got out of Special Measures!138
139 Benefits for the Robert Clack School Confidence for the leadership to know what needed to be done to get a school out of special measuresA committed contribution for staff bothTo help another school through a situation they had faced themselves andTo gain unique professional developmentAn experience which now underpins Robert Clack’s roles as a mentor school for the London Challenge and a lead school for an SSAT networkThe flip side: personal reputations and the school’s resources were put to the test139
140 Turnaround Schools – Emerging Themes Develop a narrative for sustained improvement :The ability to determine the capacity needed to undertake improvement activitiesAn understanding of the regularities needed to sustain improvement in a schoolTo identify and transfer best practice internally, with the potential to work externallyThe creation of an ethos of high expectationsTo work and negotiate with a range of stakeholders and other schools140
142 What this looks like in schools in challenging circumstances In schools in challenging circumstances the key activities are:Creating an orderly environmentEnsuring consistency in teaching practicePrioritising the work on literacy and numeracyTaking ownership for the progress of students and creating high expectationsDeveloping and supporting leadership capacityEstablishing systems for data use
143 What this looks like in schools with high levels of internal variation In schools with high levels of internal variation, the key activities are:Creating a learning environment within the schoolSharing the best of teaching practice through roundsStrengthening the work on literacy and numeracy across the curriculumIntroducing assessment for learning to enable students to take more control over their own learningDistributing leadership capacityMonitoring student progress through data use
144 What this looks like in successful schools In successful schools, the key activities are:Creating a self directed and inclusive learning environmentIntroducing innovations in teaching and sharing with other schoolsStrengthening cross curriculum working and enquiry based projectsEncouraging student voice to enrich the curriculum monitor their own progress and to champion curiosityEngaging in system leadershipUsing data formatively to enhance the progress of all students
145 “One Size Does not Fit All” B -2a,2b____________________________C -I145
146 Differential Strategies for School Improvement Type 111 strategies are those that assist effective schools to become even better. Exposure to new ideas and practices, collaboration through consortia or 'pairing' type arrangements seems to be common in these situations. Type 11 strategies are those that assist moderately effective schools become effective. These schools need to refine their developmental priorities and focus on specific teaching and learning issues, and build the capacity within the school to support this work. These strategies usually involve a certain level of external support.Type 11a strategies are characterised by a strategic focus on innovations in teaching and learning that are informed and supported by external knowledge and support.Type 11b strategies rely less on external support and tend to be more school initiated. Type 1 strategies are those that assist failing schools become moderately effective. They need to involve a high level of external support. These strategies have to involve a clear and direct focus on a limited number of basic curriculum and organisational issues, in order to build the confidence and competence to continue.
147 Segmentation of the Secondary School System 1009080N = 331370Low AchievingBelow 30% 5+A-CN = 48360Underperforming5+A*-C >=30%, lower quartile value addedActual 5+A*-C % 200350N = 5395+A*-C >=30%, 25-75th percentile value added40ProgressingN = 149530High Performing5+A*-C >=30%, upper quartile value added20N = 69610Leading the SystemN = 100102030405060708090100Estimated 5+A*-C % from pupil KS3 data
148 Key strategies – responsive to context and need System Leadership Role Networking and Segmentation: Highly Differentiated Improvement StrategiesType of SchoolLeading schoolsSucceeding schools with internal variationUnderperforming schoolsFailing schoolsKey strategies – responsive to context and need- Become curriculum and pedagogical innovators- Formal federation with lower-performing schools- Regular local networking- Subject specialist support to particular depts.- Linked school support- Consistency interventions- Formal support in a Federation structure- New providerSystem Leadership Role- Leading Edge- Consultant Leaders and National Support Schools- Education Improvement Partnershipspartnerships- Raising Achievement Transforming Learning- School Improvement Partners- School Sponsored Academy148
149 Collaboration – the offer to schools Every school will have the opportunity to benefit from and contribute to network learningThe focus of collaboration will be on student learning and achievement and the creation of professional learning communities in schoolsNetworking arrangements will be based on the twin principles of inclusivity and local accountabilityRegional Offices will co-ordinate, support and encourage collaboration and network to network learningRegional, State and Federal levels will actively support networking for specific purposes – Federations, Achievement Zones …149
150 Segmentation requires a fair degree of boldness … Schools should take greater responsibility for neighbouring schools so that the move towards networking encourages groups of schools to form substantive collaborative arrangements.All failing and underperforming (and potentially low achieving) schools should have a leading school that works with them in either a formal grouping Federation or in more informal partnership.The incentives for greater system responsibility should include significantly enhanced funding for students most at risk.A rationalisation of national and local agency functions and roles to allow the higher degree of national and regional co-ordination for this increasingly devolved system.150
151 Responsible System Leadership System leadership at the school level – with school principals almost as concerned about the success of other schools as they are about their ownSystem leadership at the local level – with practical principles widely shared and used as a basis for local alignment so that school diversity, collaboration and segmentation – that all schools are at different stages in the performance cycle on a continuum from “leading” to “failing” – are deliberately exploited and specific programmes are developed for the groups most at riskSystem leadership at the system level – with social justice, moral purpose and a commitment to the success of every learner providing the focus for transformation.
152 Coherent System Design HardwareInfrastructureOperating systemReform modelSoftwareTeaching and learningSTANDRUNIVERSALHGRecurrent fundingPhysical capitalHuman capitalKnowledge creation and managementQualificationsframeworkCurriculumPersonalised Learning andProfessionalised TeachingIntelligent accountability,Governance and SegmentationInnovation, Networkingand System LeadershipLeadership and School ethosTeaching qualityHigh quality personalised learning for every student
153 New Labour Policy Framework Intervention in inverse proportion to successAmbitious StandardsHigh ChallengeHigh SupportDevolvedresponsibilityAccountabilityAccess to best practice and quality professional developmentGood data and clear targets153
154 Towards system wide sustainable reform PrescriptionBuilding CapacityProfessionalismNational PrescriptionEvery School a Great SchoolSchools Leading ReformThe real challenge we all face is to move the system from National Prescription Schools Leading Reform.As the Minister says, to move from a situation where Government delivers policy to one that builds capacity.This is not a chronological shift, it takes time and it is always a blend, but we want to shift the balance.The aim is to go from a) through b) c). When at c) = High Excellence High EquitySystem Leadership154
155 Complementary Policy Framework for System Reform AmbitiousStandardsDevolvedresponsibilityGood data andclear targetsAccess to bestpractice and qualityprofessionaldevelopmentAccountabilityInterventionin inverseproportionto successHighChallengeSupportGovernance andSegmentationInnovation and NetworkingSystem LeadershipProfessionalised TeachingIntelligent AccountabilityEvery School a Great SchoolPersonalised Learning
156 Every School a Great School Framework Governance andSegmentationInnovation and NetworkingSystem LeadershipProfessionalised TeachingIntelligent AccountabilityEvery School a Great SchoolPersonalised Learning
157 “All our students will be literate, numerate and curious … “
158 In 2013 …A student finishing primary school will demonstrate: − individual performance at or above national standards in literacy and numeracy − a sharp curiosity for learning. A student finishing secondary school will have: − a clear, well-defined pathway to further training and education. A parent will have: − a substantive, meaningful engagement with their child’s school and their child’s teachers − a clear understanding of their child’s progress against national standards.
159 In 2013 … Teachers will have: − world class professional skills − enjoy high regard in their school communities− continuing access to quality professional learning opportunities.The community will have confidence that:− individual student performance meets national standards− graduates are capable of making valuable contributions as citizens and employees.Our success will be marked by:− students who are proud of their schools and what they have achieved− parents who are confident that sending their child to a public school is a sound educational decision.
160 Every School a Great School Improvement Strategy - 1
161 Every School a Great School Improvement Strategy – 2
162 Every School a Great School School Improvement Strategy – 3
163 Every School a Great School School Improvement Strategy – 4
164 Every School a Great School School Improvement Strategy – 5
165 Every School a Great School School Improvement Strategy – 6
166 Professional Discussion The future reform agenda is about schools supporting each other in a new educational landscape:Schools exist in increasingly complex and turbulent environments, but the best schools ‘turn towards the danger’ and adapt external change for internal purpose.Schools should use external standards to clarify, integrate and raise their own expectations.School benefit from highly specified, but not prescribed, models of best practice.Schools, by themselves and in networks, engage in policy implementation through a process of selecting and integrating innovations through their focus on teaching and learning.Schools use the principles of segmentation to transform the systemDiscuss how you do this166
167 Professional Activity There are five key variables in any regional approach to systemic reform:Clear and comprehensive model of reformStrong leadership at the regional levelSubstantive training related to the goals of the programmeImplementation support at the school levelAn increasingly differentiated approach to school improvement.A now well-established methodology for assessing the performance of public services is by ‘RAG rating’. This involves red, amber, green rating on a range of critical variables such as those noted above.
168 Developing our school improvement journeys Session SixDeveloping our school improvement journeys
169 Professional Discussion SWOT Analysis What are the preconditions of improvement in a school?How does a school organize for improvement?What are the key strategies employed to raise achievement?How does professional learning take place?How are cultures changed and developed?How effective is your own school’s approach to improvement?169
170 Professional Activity Agree groupings for activity – individual schools, clusters, pre-prep, twilight etcReview the SWOT analysis and other data generated during the workshopOn the basis of that reflection produce a poster of your school improvement journeyDisplay your poster and leave an advocate to describe the work for others and tour around all the posters noting key ideas and strategiesReturn to tables and discuss key strategiesShare 3 top strategies with whole group
171 Paulo Freire once said… “No one educates anyone elseNor do we educate ourselvesWe educate one another in communionIn the context of living in this world”
172 Professor David Hopkins David Hopkins is Professor Emeritus at the Institute of Education, University of London, where until recently, he held the inaugural HSBC iNet Chair in International Leadership. He is a Trustee of Outward Bound and is Executive Director of the new charity ‘Adventure Learning Schools’. David holds visiting professorships at the Catholic University of Santiago, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Universities of Edinburgh, Melbourne and Wales and consults internationally on school reform. Between 2002 and 2005 he served three Secretary of States as the Chief Adviser on School Standards at the Department for Education and Skills. Previously, he was Chair of the Leicester City Partnership Board and Dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Nottingham. Before that again he was a Tutor at the University of Cambridge Institute of Education, a Secondary School teacher and Outward Bound Instructor. David is also an International Mountain Guide who still climbs regularly in the Alps and Himalayas. His recent books Every School a Great School and System Leadership in Practice are published by The Open University Press.Website:172172