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Love and War (Ch. 16) Music: “Find Your Love” Drake “War” Edwin Starr.

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Presentation on theme: "Love and War (Ch. 16) Music: “Find Your Love” Drake “War” Edwin Starr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Love and War (Ch. 16) Music: “Find Your Love” Drake “War” Edwin Starr

2 Today’s Agenda 1. Prejudice a) Roots of prejudice b) Roots of Terrorism c) How it can be overcome 2. Altruism Who will help when? 3. Attraction Who do we like?/ Mate selection 4. Love a) Sternberg: Intimacy, passion and commitment b) Love as attachment 5. Physical Attractiveness and Person Perception 6. Info. on Final Exam: Stick around!

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4 1. a) Roots of Prejudice “US” vs “THEM” Ingroup/outgroup distinction based on a variety of arbitrary factors If we were to wake up some morning and find that everyone was the same race, creed and color, we would find some other cause for prejudice by noon. George AikenGeorge Aiken Ethnocentrism: Universal tendency to view one’s ingroup as better than outgroups (see p. 739) Human madness at its most destructive 3 components to prejudicial attitudes (p. 737) 1) Stereotypes (beliefs) inaccurate perception of outgroup as sharing the same characteristics 2) Emotions: e.g. hostility 3) Predisposition to action: e.g. discrimination

5 Fig. 16.21, p. 737

6 1.Prejudice (cont’d) Prejudice : Definition Unjustifiable and negative attitude towards a group Emotional roots of prejudice Scapegoating: Outgroups provide outlet for anger Serves self-esteem needs: Prejudice helps maintain a positive self-image Cognitive roots of prejudice: Categorization allows us to simplify our world Distorts the reality that members of other groups are very heterogeneous The “just-world” phenomenon: We assume we get what we deserve! How prejudiced are people today? More subtle tests reveal that prejudices persist to this day Up to 10% of population more extremist

7 1. Prejudice (cont’d) The P rejudiced Personality: Authoritarian personality: Attitudes and values marked by rigidity, and oversimplification  i.e. Absolute right vs. absolute wrong  Intolerant of differences  Thinks in stereotyped ways about minorities Concerned with power and authority  Excessive conformity Punitive childhood Observational Learning: Responsible for the transmission of prejudices across generations i.e. exposure to parental prejudicial attitudes can lead to prejudicial attitudes in children

8 1. b) Roots of Terrorism Definition: Politically motivated violence Intended to instil feelings of terror and helplessness in a population in order to influence decision-making Complex roots Avoid simplistic explanations (e.g. the attribution error) Political factors: Absence of democracy and the inability of individual members to influence decision-making Religion : Need for a death-transcending belief system Will protect that system at all costs Threat of different belief systems Take your own life for the promise of salvation and a better future for the group

9 1. b) Roots of Terrorism (cont’d) Economic and Social Deprivation: Inherent position of weakness: political, economic, military Subjective perception of injustice and deprivation Politically motivated violence when there are no military means Personal factors: Deep resentment of authority/blaming “outgroup” Engagement with a terrorist organization : Recruitment Training:

10 What could help overcome prejudice? 1) Increase cooperative contacts between member of rival groups Develop friendships with individuals of different backgrounds 2) Heal thyself! Address feelings of insecurity and low self-esteem Know thyself  Identify your own prejudices and examine critically 3) Societal level: Address poverty & inequity Allow democracies to flourish

11 2. Altruism Unselfish regard for others’ welfare Bystander Apathy: Case of Kitty Genovese Failure to help is related to the number of people present and identification with victim: Illustrated with clip. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSsPfbup0ac&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzLZD1gA5us http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzLZD1gA5us Who will help whom? Factors that influence helping: Low cost and “you know what to do” Setting (city vs rural) Victim & current state Good parental models/ or religious and humanitarian convictions

12 3. Attraction What factors lead to friendship and romance? Proximity: How close someone lives to you Familiarity breeds fondness Physical Attractiveness: Important influence on first impressions “Halo effect”: What is beautiful is good Similarity: Friends and couples more likely to share common attitudes, beliefs, interests, and to be similar in age, race, education, intelligence, and economic status. Choice of Mate: Social exchange model: exchange of assets Evolutionary model: sex differences in preferences http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qfMNES8gEk

13 4. Love A) Sternberg’s Theory: 3 Ingredients Intimacy:  sharing, communication, support Passion:  chemistry, arousal, intensity Commitment:  long-term plans, dedication to the relationship The presence or absence of these ingredients will determine the type of love that exists between 2 people, leading to: 7 flavors of love (see next overhead)

14 4. B) Love as Attachment p. 713

15 5. Effects of Physical Appearance on Person Perception Halo Effect: Good-looking people seen as more sociable, friendly, poised, warm and well adjusted than those who are less attractive (p. 701) What is beautiful is good Present in young kids (3-6 years) No evidence for a relationship between personality traits and appearance Instilled by the media? What is beautiful is competent Good looking individuals also expected to be more successful Some evidence for good-looking people to secure better jobs Self-fulfilling prophecy? Seems grossly unfair Looks are not “earned” they are inherited! Great example of contradictory evidence Snippet of “British Idol” show http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lp0IWv8QZY&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lp0IWv8QZY&feature=related

16 Reminder: Online Course Evaluation! http://courseevaluations.yorku.ca Psych 1010G: Prof. Mongrain Tutorials: Susan Sergeant Jessica Schroeder Questions? Email helpdesk@yorku.cahelpdesk@yorku.ca or call (416) 736-2100 Ext. 55800.

17 5. Final Exam Final Exam: Thursday April 14 th 9 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. Tait Mackenzie Student Field Houses 80 multiple choice; 6 short answers Content: 1) Lectures for winter semester  10% of questions are cumulative for lecture material (not book) from January until 3 rd midterm 2) Chapters 14, 15, 16 from text *** Bring photo ID ***: Current York ID & AND photo-bearing ID


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