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Grammar. Some Grammatical Quotations ‘Grammatical illiteracy has spread throughout the population because the schools, in their rush to teach only popular.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar. Some Grammatical Quotations ‘Grammatical illiteracy has spread throughout the population because the schools, in their rush to teach only popular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar

2 Some Grammatical Quotations ‘Grammatical illiteracy has spread throughout the population because the schools, in their rush to teach only popular courses, no longer bother to instil the basic rules of grammar’ –Prince Charles, June 1989 ‘The overthrow of grammar coincided with the acceptance of the equivalent of creative writing in social behaviour. As nice points of grammar were mockingly dismissed as pedantic and irrelevant, so was punctiliousness in such matters as honesty, property, gratitude, apology, and so on’ –John Rae, The Observer 1982 ‘Most of us ignore grammar in our everyday speech and in writing quick messages’ –-The Usbourne Book of Grammar

3 Some More Grammatical Quotations ‘Me, I believe in grammar- but did not really know all about it until I learned Latin- and that is a gift, an absolute gift.If you want to learn about grammar, you do a little Latin’ –Margaret Thatcher, 1990 ‘Most women and all the ordinary people in general speak in open defiance of all grammar’ –Lord Chesterfield 1741

4 If you allow standards to slip to the point where good English is no better than bad English, where people can turn up filthy and nobody takes any notice of them at school - all those things tend to cause people to have no standards at all, and once you lose your standards there’s no imperative to stay out of crime »Norman Tebbit, Today Programme, Radio 4

5 Teaching Grammar and Knowledge about Language Aims –Consider some of the arguments about teaching of grammar in schools –Explore some approaches to grammar teaching Objectives - Develop knowledge of ways to describe the way the English language works - Know what might be useful approaches to grammar/knowledge about language work

6 Teaching Grammar and Knowledge about Language Raising the issues – attitudes to grammar, language and Standard English Knowledge about language and grammar – why teach it? What to teach – grammar in the National Curriculum and Key Stage 3 Framework Teacher subject knowledge – grammar models Classroom approaches to grammar Grammar for writing

7 Grammar Test Leaving childhood behind, I soon lost this desire to possess a goldfish. It is difficult to persuade oneself that a goldfish is happy and as soon as we have begun to doubt that some poor creature enjoys living with us we can no longer take pleasure in its company. Using a new line for each, select one example from the passage of each of the following: –An infinitive used as the direct object of a verb –An infinitive used in apposition to a pronoun –A gerund –A present participle –A past participle –An adjective used predicatively (i.e. as a complement) –A possessive adjective –A demonstrative adjective –A reflexive pronoun –An adverb of time –An adverb of degree –A preposition –A subordinating conjunction »GCE O level paper 1961

8 Why teach grammar? To correct grammatical errors in speech and writing To improve students’ writing To improve students’ critical reading To develop language awareness, attitudes to language As a study in itself To develop resources for thinking

9 Grammar Teaching Principles Grammar teaching should Acknowledge and build on prior knowledge Be explorative and investigative Be descriptive, not prescriptive Look at the grammar of informal writing, spoken English, dialects, as well as formal written SE Encourage interest and respect for language Focus on the function of grammar in real texts Be related to children’s own reading and writing Relate to how language changes according to audience and purpose

10 Language and Grammar in the NC 1. how writers’ uses of language and rhetorical, grammatical and literary features influence the readeruses of language and rhetorical, grammatical and literary features 1. use complex sentences to extend, link and develop ideas 2. vary sentence structure for interest, effect and subtleties of meaning vary sentence structure 2use the conventions of standard English effectively 21. use grammar accurately in a variety of sentence types, including subject–verb agreement and correct and consistent use of tense 1. the principles of sentence grammar and whole-text cohesion, and the use of this knowledge in pupils’ writing the principles of sentence grammar and whole-text cohesion 2. variations in written standard English and how it differs from standard and non- standard spoken language 1. draw on their reading and knowledge of linguistic and literary forms when composing their writing

11 Grammar in the Framework for English explore the range, variety and overall effect on readers of literary, rhetorical and grammatical features used by writers of literary and non-literary texts explain how specific structural and organisational choices in texts create particular effects draw on their knowledge of a wide variety of sentence lengths and structures, including complex sentences, and apply it to their own writing to clarify ideas and create a range of effects according to task, purpose and reader use a range of cohesive devices with audience and purpose in mind, drawing on experience of how writers develop and connect ideas within and between paragraphs understand the significance and importance of conventional standard English, the ways in which writers use non-standard forms in specific contexts for particular effects, and how to use standard and non-standard English when appropriate in their own writing draw on their knowledge of grammatical conventions to write grammatically accurate texts that are appropriate to the task, audience and purpose explain how linguistic concepts are related, and use the terminology in ways that help them describe and review language use

12 The Medieval trivium (grammar; logic; rhetoric) Traditional formal grammar Pedagogical grammar/Prescriptive gramma Descriptive grammars Theoretical grammars Lowth (1762) Murray (1794) Quirk, Greenbaum Formal grammars Functional grammar Structuralist; Chomsky Transformational- generative Language as social practice, Halliday systemic functional Reference grammars

13 TermMorphemesWordsPhrasesClausesSentencesParagra phs Meaning Smallest unit of meaning in the language. Might be a whole word, or an ending like –ed, -s, - ing One or more morphemes combined One or more words that act a single unit A group of words normally including at least subject and verb One or more clauses linked together A collection of sentences Examples Inflections, suffixes, prefixes, words Nouns (book, dog, Paris) Verbs (run, sing) Adjectives (big, lazy) Adverbs (quickly, slowly) Connectives (and, but, although) Prepositions (in, on, by) Determiners (the, a, ten) Noun phrases (the big dog, the black cat) Adjectival phrases (really hungry, by the window) Adverbial phrases (very slowly, in a hurry) Main clause – a complete unit of sense on its own (it was raining, the boy cried) Subordinate clause – relies on a main clause (as the weatherman predicted, because he was angry) Simple sentence – one main clause (I am hungry, John is a teacher) Compound sentence- two main clauses of equal weight (John had a sandwich and Jim had a pork pie) Complex sentence – a main clause with one or more subordinate clauses (john answered the question before he thought properly)

14 Word Noun N Pronoun p He Himself His who Determiner D The a/an Which this Adjective A Big Sensible fatal Preposition p Of In After Despite Verb V Adverb Av Quickly Soon Probably Conjunction C Common Proper HatJohn InvitationLondon AuxiliaryFull Besee Havestart Willhit CoordinatingSubordinating Andif Orbecause Butafter

15 Approaches to Grammar Teaching Discrete units of work/lessons on particular features of language: Language to persuade, information writing, use of active/passive Language/grammar work integrated into existing plans Focusing on relevant grammatical features in opening of a novel or non-fiction text Investigating areas of language use: Language variation, language development/change over time

16 Grammar for Writing? AimTechniquesStrategies Developing description Expanding noun phrases (adding adjectives) Pre and post modifications Sentence building games, describing games, ordering adjectives game, redrafting Vocabulary choices ‘Powerful’ verbs Adjective and adverb choice Text substitution, cloze exercises. Modelled/shared writing, redrafting Developing sentences/linking ideas Employing a range of connectives Connectives game, playing with two related clauses, modelling writing Varying sentence structure Using subordinate clauses, moving subordinate clauses Sentence games, modelled writing, redrafting Creating cohesive texts Using connectives to link paragraphs effectively Connectives games, shared reading

17 Further Reading/Resources Richard and Elizabeth Bain, The Grammar Book (NATE) - Debra Myhill (University of Exeter) QCA - The Grammar Papers and Not Whether But How Andrews et al (2006) The effect of grammar teaching on writing development, British Educational Research Journal Vol 32 no 1, 39- 55 Andrews (2005) Knowledge about the teaching of (sentence) grammar: The state of play, English Teaching: Practice and Critique Vol 4 No3, 69-76 Hudson and Walmsley (2005) The English Patient: English teaching and grammar in the twentieth century Journal of Linguistics 41, 593- 622 Ross A (2006) Language Knowledge for Secondary Teachers

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