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Chapter 13 The Era of Self Help From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
The Era of Self Help Blacks embraced ideology of self-help to reaffirm personal dignity and hope for a better future “Pull yourself up by your bootstraps”; “be of service to the race” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
Self-Help and Philanthropy Supporting Education Dramatic rise in African American literacy Books and articles about African American achievements Improved status of blacks attributed to education Education supported by white and black donations and religious denominations Issues arose about how to balance white philanthropy with the idea of black self-determination © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
Self-Help and Philanthropy Black Self-Determination Racial self-determination a key part of the self- help ideology Blacks demanded greater presence in administration and faculties of white-run schools “Home rule for our colored schools” Black community divided over implications of self-help in relation to white-controlled colleges for blacks © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
Self-Help and Philanthropy White Philanthropy Southern black schools began to receive money from the large educational foundations of wealthy white entrepreneurs White philanthropy increased as Booker T. Washington rose to prominence Whites opposed outside philanthropy until it became clear that the philanthropists were not interested in promoting racial equality © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
6 Booker T. Washington with Robert C. Ogden, William H. Taft, and Andrew Carnegie
Self-Help and Philanthropy Educational Inequality in the South South did not encourage equitable distribution of public education funds Disfranchised blacks could do little to fight the blatant inequality Blacks “double taxed” in support of black education Racist reallocation of tax dollars Ideology of racial self-help requiring them to help maintain black schools © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
Self-Help and Philanthropy Higher Education As number of graduates from institutions of higher education rose, so did question of what type of education was appropriate Industrial training (Hampton Institute) Classical liberal arts learning (Howard, Fisk) The Talented Tenth Debate between Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Henry Morehouse Providing proper education for “the talented tenth man of the colored colleges” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
9 Tuskegee laboratory
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Booker T. Washington Founded Tuskegee Institute Proponent of industrial education that did not antagonize whites in the South Less threatening than liberal arts education, which might encourage blacks to seek social equality Did not call for equality; counseled people to obey segregation laws and cooperate with white authorities 1895 speech at Atlanta Exposition © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Up from Slavery Whites liked accommodating tone; blacks liked racial self-help message Tuskegee prepared students for specific trades and unskilled labor George Washington Carver led agricultural department; “Moveable School” Washington believed science, math, and history classes impractical for most black people Twice upset white southerners who generally admired his tact and diplomacy Speech in Chicago; dinner with Roosevelt © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Believed demand for equality was a matter of timing Quietly financed early segregation court cases Advocated for entrance of blacks into professions Opposition: T. Thomas Fortune Black editor of New York Age who wrote about loss of black civil and political rights Advocate of racial self-help Afro-American League; National Afro-Council © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Booker T. Washington at his desk
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Ida B. Wells Protested lynching of friend and urged boycott in column in Memphis Free Speech Whites so angered, burned down press and ran her out of Tennessee Moved to New York and continued journalist assaults on lynching; toured England and got British press to denounce lynching as barbaric William Monroe Trotter Criticized Washington’s emphasis on industrial education and political conciliation © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality W. E. B. Du Bois Souls of Black Folks (1903) Critical analysis of Washington’s philosophy Claimed whites, not blacks, saw Washington as leader of black people Du Bois rejected Washington’s submission to racial inequality and the type of industrial education he emphasized © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Washington’s Revenge Detractors believed that Washington’s refusal to condemn segregation, lynching, and disfranchisement won the Tuskegee Institute white financial backing Network of powerful friends allowed Washington to reward friends and punish enemies The Niagara Movement Protest organization formed in response to Washington’s pervasive influence © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Met in Niagara in 1905 and drafted the Declaration of Principles – a list of grievances and demands 55 members, including Du Bois and Trotter Group members published protest writings against white supremacy and sought to build its ranks from the Talented Tenth Washington threatened by movement; wrote white newspapers asking them to ignore it © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Bookerites and Niagarites Du Bois resorted to biblical references in fight against Washington Second meeting of Niagara Movement held in 1906 in Harpers Ferry Infrastructure of movement began to develop; began to mobilize against Jim Crow Openly and defiantly began to air debate, demanded black community to take a side Most validated ideas from both sides © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
Divergent Paths to Racial Equality Two Classes of Negroes Address by AME minister Rev. Reverdy Ransom at Harpers Ferry Niagara Movement eventually absorbed by racially-integrated National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
Economic and Social Striving Majority of blacks continued to be locked into forms of tenancy and sharecropping Unable to purchase their own land Washington sought to teach black farmers about use of modern agricultural methods to help improve conditions The Black Exodus Exodus of blacks from rural South started as early as 1879 Went North and West; some considered emigration © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
Economic and Social Striving The New South Blacks sought to take advantage of the economic revolution of the late 1800s Black factory workers eventually hired to take on least attractive jobs Innovation and Enterprise African Americans made important contributions to industrial innovation Embarked on program of business enterprise within a segregated market Washington: the “business Negro” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
Economic and Social Striving Combating Old South Images Racialized commodities Demeaning images of blacks on products reinforced stereotypes and ideas of black inferiority Blacks sought to combat such images Henry O. Tanner; The Banjo Lesson (1893) Black business ownership; cooperative businesses Black Women Entrepreneurs Black beauty culturalists Created niche for employment of black women © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
Economic and Social Striving Establishment of Black Banks Blacks made special attempt to establish themselves in banking Maggie Lena Walker Racial discrimination required blacks to chart own strategies for economic progress; needed lending agency The Role of the Churches Churches became “multi-service institutions” Maintained newspapers, schools, libraries, orphanages © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
Economic and Social Striving The Social Gospel and Black Separatism Linked Christian theology of individual salvation with ethical concerns for reforming poverty, immigration, racism, slums, alcohol Intertwined with self-help ideology 1895 formation of National Baptist Convention Mutual Benefit Societies Growth of fraternal orders and benefit associations Creation of black insurance companies © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
The Woman’s Era Gender-Specific Discrimination Women faced racist limitations; black females presumed inherently immoral Faced sexism from black community itself Adopted feminist theology and established denomination-based women’s organizations Club movement of 1890s gave voice to gender- conscious civic-activism © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25
The Woman’s Era The NACW National Association of Colored Women “Lifting as We Climb” Mary Church Terrell Strategy of racial uplift; belief in the domestic sphere; need to gain respectability in white America Mothers clubs Urban Settlement Houses Provided job training to black urban women © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27 Mary Church Terrell
Intellectual and Cultural Endeavors Pan-Negroism American Negro Academy Promoted exchange of ideas among black intellectuals and perpetuated black protest tradition Du Bois’s “The Conservation of Races” Discussed the dilemma of being American and black Advocated for “Pan-Negroism”; emphasized need for “race organization” Scholarly and Literary Works Many scholarly and literary works by blacks during the period; autobiographies popular © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28
Intellectual and Cultural Endeavors Sports Heroes Athletes became racial champions striking literal and symbolic blows against racism Horse racing, boxing, baseball © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 Jack Johnson,
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