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1 Lecture duration: (2 hours) THEORY of GEOMORPHOLOGYDr. Azhar Kh. S. BetyLecture duration: (2 hours)
2 Lecturer members: References: -Theory : Dr. Azhar Kh. S. Bety -Practice: Dr. Azhar Kh. S. Bety & Ms. LanjaReferences:1-Thornbury, W. D., Principles of geomorphology (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 594p.2-Bloom, A. L., Geomorphology- A systematic analysis of LateCenozoic landforms (3rd ed.). Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited,New Delhi, 482p.3-Ritter, D. F., Process geomorphology (2nd ed.). Wm. C. Brown Publishers, lowa, USA, 579p.4-Spark, B. W., Geomorphology (2nd ed.). Longman Group Ltd,London, 530p.5-Blyth, F. G. H. & de Freitas, M. H., A geology for engineers(6th ed.) Edward Arnold, London, 557p.6-Gribble, C. D., Geology for civil engineers (2nd ed.). GeorgeAllen & Unwin, London, 314p.7-Strahler, A & Strahler, A., Physical geography (2nd ed.). JohnWiley & Sons, Inc, USA, 748p.\8- FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOMORPHOLOGY. Second Edition.Richard John Huggett. Taylor & Francis e-Library, P.
3 Objectives of Geomorphology: ●Identification of different types of landforms, like valley, ridges, flood plains, alluvial fans, deltas, karst topography, scarps, sand dunes, moraines,…….,etc.●Identification of the different geomorphic processes and agents which are responsible in the formation of its own landforms.●Understanding the relationship between landforms and different geologic factors (such as structure, lithology, climate, ……., etc.
4 GEOMORPHOLOGY Lect. No. 1 13 / 10 / 2014 Definition of geomorphology and some fundamental concepts in geomorphology.
5 ◙ Lecture duration: (2 hours) ◙ Lecture No.(1):Definition of geomorphology and some fundamental concepts in geomorphology◙ Lecture duration: (2 hours)◙ Objectives of the lecture:●Identification of the geomorphology science.●Understanding some fundamental concepts in geomorphology which they will aid in the evaluation of much that follows in the subject “geomorphology”.◙ Lecture contents:●Definition of geomorphology → As a word and As a science.●Some fundamental concepts in geomorphology:
6 ●Definition:As a word, geomorphology is composed of three Greek roots which are “Geo, Morph & Logy” that mean the “Earth, Form & Science” respectively.●As a science, geomorphology is one of the branches of geology, dealing with the study of landforms of the earth, including submarine forms also, their formation, developments and relation to the other geological factors. Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them.
7 Geomorphology, studies in particular the lithosphere, and interactions with the atmosphere and hydrosphere, to understand the interconnection of various system processes.Geomorphologists are particularly interested in the potential for feedbacks between climate and tectonics mediated by geomorphic processes. Geochronology, uses dating methods to measure the rate of changes. Terrain measurement techniques, include differential GPS, remotely sensed digital terrain models and laser scanning, to quantify, study, and to generate illustrations and maps.
8 Initially, the subject was concerned with unravelling the history of landform development, but now it is also concerned with understanding the processes which create landforms and how these processes operate.Geomorphology is the study of landforms and landscapes, including the description, classification, origin, development, and history of planetary surfaces.
9 ●Some fundamental concepts in geomorphology: They are a number of concepts will aid in the evaluation of much that follows in the subject “geomorphology", but also not only ones used in the interpretation of the landforms (landscapes).Some fundamental concepts are enumerated by W.D. Thornbury which comes into use in the interpretation of landscapes. The concepts are:Concept (1):The same physical processes and laws that operate today, operated throughout geologic time, although not necessarily always with the same intensity as now.
10 3-Stream action in valley has the same intensity in the past and now. Explanation:1-It is the principle of ‘uniformitarianism’, which states that ‘the present is the key to the past‘.2-Tectonic activities, climate, glaciers for example prove that the processes are not the same intensity.3-Stream action in valley has the same intensity in the past and now.Example of mass wastingWave action and water chemistryGrand Canyon,
11 Concept (2):Geologic structure is a dominant control factor in the evolution of landforms and is reflected in them.It is including such phenomena as:a- rock attitude (dip and strike).b- presence or absence of joints, faults, folds and bedding planes.c-physical hardness ofthe constituent of mineral.d-permeability orimpermeability of rocks.
12 Concept (3):To a large degree the earth surface possess relief because the geomorphic processes operate at differential rates.Explanation:a-lithology and structure aremajor factors causingdifferential wasting of theearth surface.b-temperature, moisture, altitude, exposure, topography configuration, the amount and type of vegetation cover are factors causing changes in geomorphic processes within narrow limits.
13 A/ high topographic area are underlain by hard rocks. c- variation in the climate condition between a (valley floor and hill top), (bare ground and hay vegetable cover) may be reflected the:Amount of precipitationRate and type of evaporationTemperature fluctuation above and below the freezing line.Amount of soil moistureThese factors cause and make the geomorphic processes to operate at different rates and types at least within limited area.Except for region of very recent diastrophism one can say or assume safely that:A/ high topographic area are underlain by hard rocks.B/ low topographic area are underlain by weak rocks.
14 B/ Sinkholes and cavern are produced by ground water. Concept (4):Geomorphic processes leave their distinctive imprint upon landforms and each geomorphic process develops its own characteristic assemblage of landforms.Explanation:landforms have their individual distinguishing features depending upon the geomorphic processes responsible for their development, for example:A/ flood plains. Alluvial fans and deltas are products of stream action.B/ Sinkholes and cavern are produced by ground water.C/ Moraines are produced by glaciers.
16 Concept (5): Explanation: As the different erosional agents act upon the earth surface, there is produced an orderly sequence of landforms..Explanation:Davis stressed his concept of geomorphic cycle and its stages of (young, mature and old) depending upon that landforms posses distinctive characteristics.Most geomorphologist belive that “landforms” have an orderly and sequential development but not all belive that the stages (young, mature and old) have reality.A corollary to the concept of completed geomorphic cycle; is that of a partial cycle is accepted as a concept.
17 In fact the partial cycle are far more likely to occur than completed cycle because most of the earth crusts are subjected to intermittent and differential uplift.Concept (6):Complexity of geomorphic evolution is more common than simplicity.Explanation:*Little of the earth topography can be explained as the result of the operation of the single geomorphic process or cycle of development.*It is rare to find landscape assemblage which can be attributed solely to one geomorphic process.
18 Concept (7): Explanation: Little of the earth topography is older than Tertiary and most of it no older than Pleistocene.Explanation:The geologic structures are in general much older than topographic features developed upon them except in area of late Pleistocene and recent diastrophism.Concept (8):Proper interpretation of present day landscapes is impossible without a full appreciation of the manifold influences of the geologic and climatic changes during the Pleistocene.
19 A- glaciation directly affected many million square miles. B- the glaciation effect extended far beyond the areas actually glaciated.Concept (9):An appreciation of world climates is necessary to a proper understanding of the varying importance of the different geomorphic processes.Explanation:The climatic factors especially precipitation and temperatures influence the operation of the geomorphic processes.
20 Concept (10):Geomorphology although concerned primarily with present-day landscapes attains its maximum usefulness by historical extension.Explanation:A-Geomorphology deals with the present-day landscapes that date back to previous epochs and periods.B- Geomorphologist should adobt historical approach especially by application of the principle of Uniformitarianism.
21 Some landscapes arise from disorderly processes. ConceptDescriptionAlternativesUnusual processes without modern analogs occurred in the geologic past.Similar geomorphic processes that operate today operated throughout geologic time.UniformitarianismCataclysmic processes and changes are most important in landscape evolution.Relatively frequent, modest-sized processes dominate in the progressive changing of the landscapes over long time periods.GradualismSome landscapes arise from disorderly processes.Erosional agents on a planetary surface produce an orderly sequence of landforms as a function of time.OrderlinessGeologic structure predominates over climate in influencing landform assemblages.Landscapes reflect the influence of certain climatic processes by developing a characteristic assemblage of landforms.Morphoclimatic ZonationIn stable tectonic areas, extensive landscapes of Tertiary, or even Mesozoic, age are preservedMost of the Earth´s topography is no older than Pleistocene.Youthfulness of TopographyRelict landscape elements persist despite Pleistocene changes and comprise palimpsestsThe geologic and climatic changes of the Pleistocene were critical in the shaping of most landscapes.Legacy of the PleistoceneGeomorphology attains its maximum usefulness by historical extension, analyzing ancient conditions.Geomorphology is primarily concerned with present- day processes that shape present-day landscapes.ModernismComplexity of geomorphic systems is more common than Simplicity.It is necessary to search for simplicity in geomorphological systems.Simplicity
22 ئه مه جى يه كه م موحازه ره يه ئه ويه؟؟؟ ئه مه جى يه كه م موحازه ره يه ئه ويه؟؟؟به خوا قورسه ؟؟؟؟؟وا نـييـه !!!!!!!!!Thank You For Your Time