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BCGCA3004B Construct Wall Framing. Wall Framing National Construction Code states that.

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Presentation on theme: "BCGCA3004B Construct Wall Framing. Wall Framing National Construction Code states that."— Presentation transcript:

1 BCGCA3004B Construct Wall Framing

2

3 Wall Framing National Construction Code states that

4 What does this mean NSW law has adopted the National Construction Code (NCC) as “Building Law” The “Building Law” says that the methods outline in AS will comply with this law. So if you follow the methods outlined in AS , unless otherwise stated you do not need any other design assistance e.g. Engineer etc.

5 AS Scope Page 9 Section 1.1

6 AS Scope Page 9 Section 1.1 This means that this standard only applies the Residential Buildings (Class 1) or Garages & Carports (Class 10).

7 Wall Frame Members Parts of a frame perform specific functions - supporting live & dead loads - resist Racking Forces - resist Overturning Forces - resist Sliding Forces - resist Uplift Forces -Most members provide a face to accept linings (this means that member sizes may be limited)

8 Live Load

9 Dead Load

10 Racking Forces Wind

11 Overturning Forces Wind

12 Sliding Forces Wind

13 Uplift Forces Wind

14 What is a Timber Frame Structurally Connected Timber Members Resist Forces Forming a Wall Frame to meet requirements – Height – Load Roof, Upper Levels etc – Openings

15 Timbers Generally Used Radiata Pine F5 MGP 10 Higher Grades for Lintels etc. Oregon F5 Hardwood – Generally only used for Lintels etc. Engineered Timbers – Generally only used for Lintels etc.

16 Basic Frame Components Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

17 Common Stud Main Vertical component of the wall Transfer Loads from Top Plate to Bottom Plate Accept wall finishes – Straightness will affect the quality Accept fittings & Fixtures – Driers, Shelving etc.

18 Common Studs Vertical members placed between the plates The set the wall height Studs in external frames resist Wind Loads Generally Stud sizes are 90mm or 70mm wide by 45mm or 35mm in seasoned timbers and 75mm or 100mm wide by 50mm or 38mm in seasoned timbers. Required Stud sizes can be found in AS Supplements (which we will look at Shortly)

19 Common Studs May be Straightened to provide acceptable wall Only 20% of Studs may be Straightened Studs at sides of Openings & Supporting Concentrated Loads shall not be Crippled

20 Straightening Refer to Page 59 of AS

21 Confirmation of Learning On A4 page supplied draw & label an Isometric view showing the method of Crippling Studs

22 Frame Components Common Studs What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – Cost v Size, Usually MGP10 Level – Upper/Single or Lower Select Correct Table – For member Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Applicable to Double Storey Only Upper Floor Load Width – Applicable to Double Storey Only Roof Material – Tile/Metal Rafter/Truss Spacing – Roof Panel Width Stud Spacing – How much of Roof Panel does it carry Stud Height – The Taller a stud the less load it can carry Roof Load Width – Roof Panel Length Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

23 Worked Example Determining Studs Refer to Supplied Plans Determine minimum sizes of Studs 1.External Walls at rear (Single Storey Section) At Point marked 1 2.External Walls at front (Two Storey Section) At Point marked 2 (Lower Level) At Point marked 3 (Upper Level) Present this to your trainer for confirmation of Understanding and recording of completion of the task

24 Select Stud

25 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Select Correct Table – Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Upper Floor Load Width – Roof Material – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

26

27 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Upper Floor Load Width – Roof Material – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

28

29 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Upper Floor Load Width – Roof Material – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

30

31 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

32

33 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

34

35 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm Stud Spacing – 600mm Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

36

37 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm Stud Spacing – 600mm Stud Height – 2700 Roof Load Width -

38 3 Options

39 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Level Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing – N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm Stud Spacing – 600mm Stud Height Roof Load Width

40 Select the best For the Situation 70 x 35 Most Suitable 75mm Most Suitable 90mm

41

42 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Select Correct Table – Roof Material – Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Upper Floor Load Width – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

43

44 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level Select Correct Table – Roof Material – Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Upper Floor Load Width – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

45

46 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Upper Floor Joist Spacing – Upper Floor Load Width – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

47

48 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Tile Roof Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

49

50 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Tile Roof Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

51

52 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Tile Roof Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

53

54 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Tile Roof Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A Stud Spacing – Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

55 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Tile Roof Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A Stud Spacing – 600mm Stud Height – Roof Load Width -

56

57 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Roof Material – Tile Roof Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A Stud Spacing – 600mm Stud Height – 2700mm Roof Load Width -

58

59 To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Level Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched Upper Floor Joist Spacing – N/A Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm Stud Spacing – 600mm Stud Height Roof Load Width

60 Most Suitable 75mm Most Suitable 90mm

61 Confirmation of Learning Refer to Supplied Plans Trainer to Provide – Rafter/Truss Spacing – Stud Spacing – Roof Load Width = ½ Span ÷ Cos (Pitch°) Determine minimum sizes of Studs 1.External Walls at rear (Single Storey Section) At Point marked 1 2.External Walls at front (Two Storey Section) At Point marked 2 (Lower Level) At Point marked 3 (Upper Level)

62 Basic Frame Components Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

63 Jamb Studs Additional Studs placed at sides of Openings in walls carrying structural loads Accommodate extra loads imposed by Lintels

64 Jamb Studs - Notching

65 Jamb Studs - Housing Why Bother 2/75 x 3.8mm is more than enough Housings not allowed in Load Bearing Walls

66 Frame Components Jamb Studs What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – Cost v Size. Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Is it taking 1 st Floor Load. Select Correct Table – Common, Jamb or Concentrated Loads Studs. Upper Floor Load Width – Floor Load Panel Length (Only Applies to 2 Storey). Roof Material – Tile or Metal Roof Roof Load Width – Roof Load Panel Length Lintel Span – Opening being Spanned Stud Height – Taller Stud has less ability to carry load. Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

67

68 Frame Components Jamb Studs What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 11 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Load Width – Lintel Span – Stud Height – Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

69

70 Frame Components Jamb Studs What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 11 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Load Width – 5400 Lintel Span – Stud Height – Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

71

72 Frame Components Jamb Studs What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 11 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Load Width – 5400 Stud Height – 2700 Lintel Span – Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

73

74 Frame Components Jamb Studs What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 11 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Roof Load Width – 5400 Stud Height – 2700 Lintel Span – 1900 Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

75 Most Suitable for 75mm Most Suitable for 90mm

76 Studs for Concentrated Loads

77 Studs for Concentrated Loads See Page 67 - AS Point Load from Beam etc. that gathers load from other structural members

78 Studs for Concentrated Loads See Page 67 - AS Point Load from Beam etc. that gathers load from other structural members Beams etc. > 3000mm that take loads from – Strutting Beams – Roof Struts – Girder Trusses or – Hanging Beams

79

80 Frame Components Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads` What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – Cost v Size. Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Is it taking 1 st Floor Load. Select Correct Table – Common, Jamb or Concentrated Loads Studs. Upper Floor Load Width – Floor Load Panel Length (Only Applies to 2 Storey). Roof Material – Tile or Metal Roof Stud Height – Taller Stud has less ability to carry load. Roof Area Supported – Roof Load Imposed Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

81

82 Frame Components Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads` What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 9 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Stud Height – Roof Area Supported – Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

83

84 Frame Components Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads` What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 9 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Stud Height – 2700 Roof Area Supported – Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

85

86 Frame Components Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads` What Consideration For Selection Determine Required Grade – MGP 10 Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Select Correct Table – Table 9 Upper Floor Load Width – N/A Roof Material – Tile Stud Height – 2700 Roof Area Supported – (4.150 x 5.400) ÷ 4 = 5.6m 2 Note – Dimensions are in metres = = 5.400

87 Therefore a 70 x 45 is sufficient

88 Studs supporting concentrated Loads It is important that you develop the ability to recognise the location of Concentrated Loads This will allow you to install the required studs while manufacturing the frames

89 Discuss Concept of Pattern Stud Common Studs Lintel Positions Trimmers

90 Basic Frame Components Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

91 Frame Components Bottom Plate Horizontal member that form the bottom of the frame. Bottom plate must run full length of wall, except at openings (cl 6.2.2) Bottom plates are joined with butt joints with fixing near the joint Joints must be fully supported

92 Frame Components Bottom Plate Horizontal member that form the bottom of the frame. Bottom plate must run full length of wall, except at openings (cl 6.2.2) Bottom plates are joined with butt joints with fixing near the joint Joints must be fully supported Where the Bottom Plate Supports a concentrated Load or Jamb Studs to openings > 1200, the bottom plate must be fully supported

93 Frame Components Bottom Plate Sizing Bottom plate sizing is dependent on its span If it is fully supported (e.g. Concrete Slab) only nominal 35mm thickness required for any structural grade (cl 6.3.3) Items to consider when determining the size of Bottom Plate are listed in the span tables where you make the selections. (page 1 & 2 of Handout) 1.Timber Grade – Strength of Timber 2.Joist Spacing – Means greater span 3.Loading – Load that is to be disturbed through structure Is it a tiled roof, Is it the lower level of a 2 storey building 4.Rafter/Joist Spacing – More load concentrated at studs once distributed. Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

94 Design Parameters for Bottom Plate

95 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

96 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

97

98 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

99

100 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

101 Select most Suitable

102 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

103 v 70 x 45 Or 90 x 45

104 Confirmation of Learning Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data (Conventional Floor System) Roof Load Width4100mm Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing450mm Stud90mm Wide Roof MaterialTile Minimum Size ______________________ Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data (Concrete Slab) Roof Load Width4100mm Truss Spacing600mm Joist SpacingN/A Stud70mm Wide Roof MaterialTile Minimum Size ______________________

105 Confirmation of Learning - Answer Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data (Conventional Floor System) Roof Load Width4100mm Truss Spacing600mm Joist Spacing600mm Stud90mm Wide Roof MaterialTile Minimum Size2/ 70 x 45 Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data (Concrete Slab) Roof Load Width4100mm Truss Spacing600mm Joist SpacingN/A Stud70mm Wide Roof MaterialTile Minimum Size70 x 35 (Nominal as Fully Supported)

106 Basic Frame Components Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

107 Top Plate An Important Structural Member Provides Lateral tie to the Building

108 Top Plate An Important Structural Member Provides Lateral tie to the Building Provides a transition point for the connection of Roofing Members and distribution of loads A Component of the Bracing System

109 Top Plate An Important Structural Member Provides Lateral tie to the Building Provides a transition point for the connection of Roofing Members and distribution of loads A Component of the Bracing System A component of the uplift restraint system

110 Top Plate To Plates must run full length of the wall Top Plate must run over openings Concentrated Loads must be Fully Supported

111 Frame Components To Plate Sizing Top plate sizing is dependent (See pages 3 to 6 of Handout) Positioning of Rafter/Truss (See next Slide) Upper or Lower Level (Pages 3 & 4 v Pages 5 & 6) 1.Timber Grade – Strength of Timber 2.Roof Material – Tile v Metal 3.Rafter/Truss Spacing – How & Where the Load is applied 4.Stud Spacing – How much bending will be caused by Rafters 5.Roof Load Width - How wide is the Building (see next slide) Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

112 Frame Components To Plate Sizing Top plate sizing is dependent (See pages 3 to 6 of Handout) (Pages 3 & 4 v Pages 5 & 6) 1.Timber Grade – Strength of Timber 2.Location – Single Level, Upper Level or Lower of 2 Storey 3.Roof Material – Tile v Metal 4.Rafter/Truss Spacing – How & Where the Load is applied 5.Tie Down Spacing – Bending imposed on Top Plate by Uplift 6.Stud Spacing – How much bending will be caused by Rafters 7.Roof Load Width - How wide is the Building (see next slide)

113 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing600mm Stud Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

114 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing600mm Stud Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

115

116 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing600mm Stud Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

117

118 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing600mm Stud Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

119

120 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing600mm Stud Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

121

122 Worked Example Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing0 Stud Spacing450mm Roof Load Width6000mm

123 70 x x 45

124 Confirmation of Learning Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing0 Stud Spacing600mm Roof Load Width5500mm Wall Frame Width70mm Minimum Size ______________________

125 Confirmation of Learning - Answer Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data Roof MaterialSheet Roof LocationSingle Storey Rafter / Truss Spacing600mm Tie Down Spacing0 Stud Spacing600mm Roof Load Width5500mm Wall Frame Width70mm Minimum Size 70 x 45

126 Undersize Top Plate

127

128 Plates Seasoned timbers are dressed therefore trenching not required Rough Sawn Timbers such as Oregon, Hardwood require trenching. Housing of plates for studs provides a constant thickness Trenching keeps Top & Bottom plates parallel Restrains Unseasoned Studs from twisting

129 Trenching usually appox 10 mm Trenching depth is not critical but what is left on is. Top Plates fully supported on masonary walls will be sized based on a 300mm spacing

130 Joining of Plates Where plates are butt jointed they may be joined using a connector plate.

131 Joining of Plates Plates may be Scarfed or Lapped jointed. Theses are time consuming and rarely used

132 Calculate Plate Lengths During Fabrication Top & Bottom Plates are the same length Plates should be as long as possible Consider manpower available to stand frames Remember Top Plate must be continuous

133 Roof Load Width AS Definition

134 Roof Load Width Why is it an Important Consideration?

135 Roof Load Width Why is it an Important Consideration? Compare if Y= 5m & b = 0.6m

136 Roof Load Width Why is it an Important Consideration? The Top Plate in the Top example is taking more load Compare if Y= 5m & b = 0.6m B = = 5.6m B = = 1.433m

137 Uplift Uplift is a complex item and dealt with at Cert IV level Generally in Sydney for a Tile Roof it is not a consideration (See next slide) except for; – Ocean Front – Top of a Hill – Isolated Buildings with no wind shielding

138

139 Basic Frame Components Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

140 Lintels Also referred to as a Head when it is not supporting Structural Loads Horizontal Load Bearing Member between Studs Purpose is to transfer structural loads that are above an opening to load bearing studs May be made of many materials - Timber - Engineered Timbers - LVL’s, I Beams - Structural Steel or Cold Rolled Steel Sections

141 Lintels – Installation Requirements AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

142 Lintels – Installation Requirements AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

143 Lintels – Installation Requirements AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

144 Lintels – Installation Requirements AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

145 From experience this is my preferred method as if there is A change in size or height, it does not require a major alteration It is a simple change of the infill head.

146 Lintels – Requirement for Top Plate The Top Plate CANNOT be cut To fit a Lintel Top Plate must be Continuous

147 Frame Components Lintel Sizing Lintel sizing is dependent (See pages 9 & 10 of Handout) 1.Timber Grade – Strength of Timber 2.Roof Material – Tile v Metal 3.Location – Upper,Single or Lower Level of 2 Storey 4.Floor Load Width– Applicable to Lowers Storey of 2 Storey Only 5.Roof Load Width - How wide is the Building 6.Rafter Truss Spacing – Loading on Beam 7.Lintel Span – Required Span Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

148 Worked Example

149 1.Timber Grade – MGP10 2.Roof Material – Tile 3.Location – Single Level 4.Floor Load Width– 5.Roof Load Width – 6.Rafter Truss Spacing – 7.Lintel Span – Worked Example

150

151 1.Timber Grade – MGP10 2.Roof Material – Tile 3.Location – Single Level 4.Floor Load Width – N/A 5.Roof Load Width – 3500mm 6.Rafter Truss Spacing – 7.Lintel Span – Worked Example

152

153 1.Timber Grade – MGP10 2.Roof Material – Tile 3.Location – Single Level 4.Floor Load Width – N/A 5.Roof Load Width – 3500mm 6.Rafter Truss Spacing – 600mm 7.Lintel Span – Worked Example

154

155 1.Timber Grade – MGP10 2.Roof Material – Tile 3.Location – Single Level 4.Floor Load Width – N/A 5.Roof Load Width – 3500mm 6.Rafter Truss Spacing – 600mm 7.Lintel Span – 2100mm Worked Example

156

157 6. Noggins

158 Stop Studs from Twisting, Cupping etc Assist Studs to take load – prevent buckling under load Form Part of Bracing System

159 6.Noggins Walls > 1350mm in height must have noggins Max Spacing between rows = 1350mm No Stress grading required Min 25mm Thick Noggins may be offset 2 x Thickness to allow for ease of Installation Min width = Wall Thickness – 25mm

160 Confirmation of Learning 1.How many Rows of Noggins are required for following wall heights Is a 70 x 35 Noggin suitable for a 90mm Wall Frame

161 Bracing

162 6. Bracing Member that prevents distortion of frame by – Racking Forces You must determine Wind load on Building

163 Bracing There are many materials that can be used to Brace a wall frame. These generally form part of a system. See page 4 of TAFE Notes

164 Diagonal Timber Bracing Rarely Used Today.

165 Diamond Bracing Not Mentioned in AS Must be Considered an Alternative Solution. Would require an Engineer to Certify.

166 Perforated Metal Angle Where there a 2 in a wall, They should oppose each other

167 Hoop Iron Cross Bracing A very good and efficient method and should be 1 st choice

168 Hoop Iron Cross Bracing Tensioning should be done during the hottest part of the day

169 Hoop Iron Cross Bracing Final Nailing off should be done as late as possible Leave temporary bracing as long as possible

170 Sheet Bracing Plywood or Hardboard (Masonite)

171 6. Bracing Member that prevents distortion of frame by – Racking Forces – Section 8 of Standard

172

173 (a) Determine Wind Classification

174 Limitations of Classification

175 Same Limitations AS

176 (a) Determine Wind Classification AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine 1.Geographic Wind Speed 2.Terrain Category 3.Topographic Class 4.Shielding

177 (a) Determine Wind Classification AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine 1.Geographic Wind Region 2.Terrain Category 3.Topographic Class 4.Shielding

178 1.Geographic Wind Region

179 Exercise What Region are the following Cities or towns located in – Sydney______________ – Brisbane______________ – Melbourne______________ – Darwin______________ – Perth______________ – Grafton (NSW)______________ – Townsville (Qld)______________ – Alice Springs (NT)______________ – Perisher Valley (NSW)______________ – Launceston (TAS)______________ – Port Hedland (WA)______________

180 Exercise - Answer What Region are the following Cities or towns located in – SydneyA – BrisbaneB – MelbourneA – DarwinC – PerthA – Grafton (NSW)B – Townsville (Qld)C – Alice Springs (NT)A – Perisher Valley (NSW)A – Launceston (TAS)A – Port Hedland (WA)D

181 (a) Determine Wind Classification AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine 1.Geographic Wind Speed 2.Terrain Category 3.Topographic Class 4.Shielding

182 2.Terain Category

183

184 Exercise Determine The Follow Terrain Categories 1.An Isolated House at Woomera with no significant Topographical features for 15km in all directions. Classification_________________ 2.A House at Bronte located on the Ocean Front. Classification_________________ 3.House Build adjacent to Richmond Air force Base Classification_________________ 4.A house in Alexandria (NSW) Classification_________________

185 Exercise - Answer Determine The Follow Terrain Categories 1.An Isolated House at Woomera with no significant Topographical features for 15km in all directions. ClassificationTC1 2.A House at Bronte located on the Ocean Front. ClassificationTC2 3.House Build adjacent to Richmond Air force Base ClassificationTC2 4.A house in Alexandria (NSW) ClassificationTC3

186 (a) Determine Wind Classification AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine 1.Geographic Wind Speed 2.Terrain Category 3.Topographic Class 4.Shielding

187 3. Topographic Class Topographic class determines the effect of wind on a house considering its location on a, hill, ridge or escarpment and the height and average slope of the hill, ridge or escarpment.

188 3. Topographic Class Where average slope is Greater than 1 in 20 is the Start of the “Hill”.

189 3. Topographic Class Height of Hill.

190 3. Topographic Class Height of Hill. Note Parameter for Escarpment

191 3.Topographic Class AS

192 Topography for Hills Explained

193 Determine Average Slope The average slope of a hill, ridge or escarpment (φ a ) shall be the slope measured by averaging the steepest slope and the least slope through the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment.

194 AS Table 2.3 Row 1 Average Slope < 1 in 10 All Heights T1

195 AS Table 2.3 Row 2 Average Slope < 1 in 10 & > 1 in 7.5 *Less than 20m all T1 T1 T2*

196 AS Table 2.3 Row 3 Average Slope < 1 in 7.5 & > 1 in 5 T1 *Less than 9m all T1 *H > 30 T3 *H ≤ 30 T2

197 AS Table 2.3 Row 4 Average Slope < 1 in 5 & > 1 in 3 T1 T2 H > 30 T4 H ≤ 30 T3 H

198 AS Table 2.3 Row 5 Average Slope > 1 in 3 T1 T2 H > 30 T5 H ≤ 30 T4 H

199 Topography for Escarpments Explained

200 3.Topographic Class AS

201 Determine Average Slope The average slope of a hill, ridge or escarpment (φ a ) shall be the slope measured by averaging the steepest slope and the least slope through the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment.

202 AS Table 2.3 Row 1 Average Slope < 1 in 10 All Heights T1

203 AS Table 2.3 Row 2 Average Slope < 1 in 10 & > 1 in 7.5 *Less than 20m all T1 T1 *T2 T1

204 AS Table 2.3 Row 3 Average Slope < 1 in 7.5 & > 1 in 5 T1 *Less than 9m all T1 *H > 30 T3 *H ≤ 30 T2 T1

205 AS Table 2.3 Row 4 Average Slope < 1 in 5 & > 1 in 3 T1 T2 H > 30 T4 H ≤ 30 T3 H T2

206 AS Table 2.3 Row 5 Average Slope > 1 in 3 T1 T2 H > 30 T5 H ≤ 30 T4 H T3

207 Worked Example For Our Purposes in this course we will always use T1 You will go into more detail in the CERT IV Course

208 (a) Determine Wind Classification AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine 1.Geographic Wind Speed 2.Terrain Category 3.Topographic Class 4.Shielding

209 The affect of local obstructions on wind flow The 5 year likely impact must be considered – Growth of Trees etc. – Proposed Developments etc. Classes – Full Shielding (FS) – Partial Shielding (PS) – No Shielding (NS)

210 Full Shielding (FS) 1.Surrounded by 2 Rows of Houses 2.Heavily Wooded Areas (Zones A & B Only) 3.Typical Suburb consisting of 10 houses per Ha 4.Roads or Parks less than 100m wide are ignored

211 Partial Shielding (PS) 2.5 Houses, Trees, Sheds etc. per Ha In Regions C & D heavily wooded areas

212 No Shielding (NS) No Permanent Obstructions Less than 2.5 obstructions per Ha First 2 Rows abutting Open Parkland, Open Water, Airfield etc.

213 Worked Examples

214

215 Wind Classification

216 Worked Example TAFE UNI Randwick Town Centre

217 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A

218 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 House is not On a hill

219 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 ShieldingFS Shielded by 2 Rows of Houses

220 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 ShieldingFS Terrain Category TC 3

221 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 ShieldingFS Terrain Category TC 3

222 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 ShieldingFS Terrain Category TC 3

223 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 ShieldingFS Terrain Category TC 3

224 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT1 ShieldingFS Terrain Category TC 3 Wind Category is N1

225 Worked Example Bronte Ocean Front

226 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A

227 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 House is located on top Of 30m escarpment

228 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 ShieldingNS No Shielding on Ocean Side – You must always use worst case example

229 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 ShieldingNS Terrain CategoryTC1

230 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 ShieldingNS Terrain CategoryTC1

231 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 ShieldingNS Terrain CategoryTC1

232 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 ShieldingNS Terrain CategoryTC1

233 Worked Example Geographic Wind RegionRegion A TopographyT5 ShieldingNS Terrain CategoryTC1 Wind Category = N5

234

235 Determine Wind Pressure Determined by; – Wind Classification – Tables 8.1 to 8.5 AS – Is dependant on the shape of the Building Is it a Gable or Hip or a more Complex shape? – Explained in Next Slides

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242 Area of Elevation h = ½ height of the wall (half of the floor to ceiling height). For wind direction 2, the pressure on the gable end is determined from Table 8.1 pressure on the hip section of the elevation is determined from Table 8.2. The total of racking forces is the sum of the forces calculated for each section. Eaves < 1m 2 can be ignored. Table 8.1 Table 8.2

243 Area of Elevation You must determine Area of each part of the elevation Of the Building

244 Area of Elevation Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m = 16m Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m = 14m 2

245

246 (d) Calculating Racking Force Formula Area of Elevation x Wind Pressure Required Data Pitch = 30°

247 (d) Calculating Racking Force Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x Wind Pressure ? 1.2 = 16m Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m = 14m 2 Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

248 Wind Pressure Direction 1.1

249 (d) Calculating Racking Force Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x 0.75 = = 16m 2 x Wind Pressure ? Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m = 14m 2 Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

250 Wind Pressure Direction 1.2

251 (d) Calculating Racking Force Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x 0.75 = = 16m 2 x 0.74 = Total Racking Force = Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x Wind Pressure ? 1.2 = 14m 2 Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

252 Important Note Which Wind Pressure to Use ? As shape is the same from both directions We use the same Table (8.2) Pitch 25° Wind N2

253 Pressure = 0.73 in Both Directions

254 Important Note Which Wind Pressure to Use ? As shape is different in each elevation we must determine individually for each direction And use WORST case Pitch 25° Wind N2 Table 8.2 Table 8.1

255 Pressure = 0.92

256 Pressure = 0.71

257 Important Note Which Wind Pressure to Use ? As the worst case is the Gable End, we must use the wind Pressure from Table 8.1 = Pitch 25° Wind N2 Table 8.2 = 0.71 Table 8.1 = 0.92 The Gable End will ALWAYS have the highest pressure

258 Pressure = 0.71

259 (d) Calculating Racking Force - Revisited Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x 0.75 = = 16m 2 x 0.74 = Total Racking Force = Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x Wind Pressure ? 1.2 = 14m 2 Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

260 Wind Pressure Direction 1.2 You must use this table as it is a Gable End

261 (d) Calculating Racking Force Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x 0.75 = = 16m 2 x 0.74 = Total Racking Force = Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 2.1 = 14m 2 x 0.92 = = 14m 2 x Wind Pressure ? Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

262 Wind Pressure Direction 2.2

263 (d) Calculating Racking Force Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes 1.1 = 14m 2 x 0.75 = = 16m 2 x 0.74 = Total Racking Force = Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes 2.1 = 14m 2 x 0.92 = = 14m 2 x 0.72 = Total Racking Force = Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

264 Before we do this lets see what (f) says

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266 Clause We must start placing Bracing at, 1.External Walls & 2.At Corners

267 Before we do this lets see what (f) says

268 Clause Single or Upper Level Bracing Max Spacing is 9m for N2 & N2 Wind Classification For N3 & above refer Tables

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270

271 Before we do this lets see what (f) says

272 Table 8.18 List Types of Bracing Systems that are “Deemed to Satisfy” Gives a value per/m length of Bracing Panel Theses values are used to counteract the Racking Forces calculated.

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286 Before we do this lets see what (f) says

287 Clause &Table 8.19

288 Lets Design

289 Design Wind Direction 1.1 Racking Force = 10.5 Wind Direction 1.2 Racking Force = Wind Direction 2.1 Racking Force = Wind Direction 2.2 Racking Force =

290 Nominal Wall Bracing

291 Design – Area 1.1 Wind Direction 1.1 Racking Force =

292 Design – Area 1.1 Wind Direction 1.1 Racking Force = Metal Cross Strapping to Corners As per Table 8.14 (b) Note you must do all corners Regardless of Overkill

293 Design – Area 1.1 Wind Direction 1.1 Racking Force = Metal Cross Strapping to Corners As per Table 8.14 (b) You Still would place Bracing on Internal Walls To assist During Constructions Using any Method (a) is easiest

294 Design – Area 1.1 Wind Direction 1.1 Racking Force = Metal Cross Strapping to Corners As per Table 8.14 (b) You Still would place Bracing on Internal Walls To assist During Constructions Using any Method (a) is easiest

295 Design – Area Wind Direction 1.2 Racking Force = 11.84

296 Design – Area Wind Direction 1.2 Racking Force = Metal Cross Strapping to Corners As per Table 8.14 (b)

297 Design – Area Wind Direction 1.2 Racking Force = Bracing to Internal Walls to 1.Spread Bracing thru Structure 2.Assist During Construction

298 Design – Area 2.1 Wind Direction 2.1 Racking Force =

299 Design – Area 2.1 Wind Direction 2.1 Racking Force = Metal Cross Strapping to Corners As per Table 8.14 (b)

300 Design – Area 2.1 Wind Direction 2.1 Racking Force = Bracing to Internal Walls to 1.Spread Bracing thru Structure 2.Assist During Construction

301 Design – Area Wind Direction 2.2 Racking Force = 10.08

302 Design – Area Wind Direction 2.2 Racking Force = 10.08

303 Design – Area Bracing to Internal Walls to 1.Spread Bracing thru Structure 2.Assist During Construction

304 Lets Design

305 Clause Top of INTERNAL Bracing Walls must be fixed to Ceiling or Upper Floor Structure with equivalent Shear Capacity as to its Bracing Capacity

306 See Next Slide for Explanation

307 Confirmation Learning Complete Exercise 42 of your workbook

308 Connection of Internal Brace Walls In our Exercise we use Crossed Hoop Iron Bracing Value = 1.5 Bracing Panel Length = 2.7 Total Force = 1.5 x 2.7 = 4.05kN

309 Total Force = 4.05kN Seasoned Radiata Pine = JD4 1 Fixing at each end of Bracing Panel = 2 x 2.1kN = 4.2 (Sufficient)

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311 Wall Frames Frames are classified into 2 categories 1.Load Bearing – They are structural frames, they transfer loads from roof or upper floor to the supporting floor frame. They can be either external or internal walls. 2.Non Load Bearing – - do not support any structural loads. - They support their own weight - Non structural loads doors and frame, kitchen cupboards, driers etc. - support some live loads eg Doors closing. Therefore there are some minimum requirements for these AS cl 6.3.5

312 AS cl 6.3.5

313 Wall Components

314 Trimmers Horizontal members fixed between window studs and door studs. Referred to as Sill or Head trimmers Usually of the same section size bottom plates Openings wider than 1800mm require trimmers as specified in AS cl & table 6.3

315 Trimmers Refer Table 6.3 of your Australian Standard

316 Trimming Studs Run from Trimmers to Plates – Use same Timber Size Used to block out Narrow Lintel Where use in conjunction with Lintel they may take structural loads Must be same depth as wall frame to accept finishes May also be referred to as “Jack”, “Soldier”, or “Short” studs

317 Wall Intersections Blocking Placed at intersections of wall frames Normally 3 Blocks per intersection

318 Blocking AS1684.2

319 What is a Concentrated Load ? >3000

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322 Stress Grading Refers to the Timbers Strength Timber must be able to withstand stress loads placed on them. Overloading may cause straining or failure 3 types of stress Compressive Tensile Shear Note Torsional Stress is not discussed

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325 Stress Grading Members Sizes will be determined for span tables Generally for Residential Construction sizes will not be specified by designers Why? Architect will not want to take responsibility Engineer will want to charge extra to do this and Why would a client want to pay for something that he can get done for nothing

326 Stress Grading Why are members generally specified on Commercial projects AS Residential Timber Framed Construction Guide

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328 AS Limitations The Maximum number of storey's of timber shall not exceed The maximum width of a building shall mm, Note, if you use AS simplified max width = mm The maximum wall height shall be 3000mm excluding gable ends The maximum roof pitch shall be 35 degrees

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330 Ordering Timber Timber is ordered in lineal meters may be priced in cubic meters Increments of 300mm Timber should be ordered as required - avoid unnecessary exposure to weather - affecting cash flows - theft - storage

331 Material Storage Timber should be stored on gluts This allows for airflow Care should be taken in stack sizes Stacks can be strapped for safety

332 Storage of Materials Timber should be stored as close as possible to work area

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340 Stud Spacing – Other Consideration Stud Spacing may also be determined by sheeting

341 Studs Not all external sheeting require critical stud placement Check with LATEST manufactures manual as to requirements

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343 Harditek (Blue Board) For Sheet Products Stud Placement is Important

344 Calculating Stud Lengths Finished Floor to Ceiling govern stud length Minimum Habitable Room is 2400mm Clear Floor Finishes 1. Carpet 20mm 2. Timber Flooring 40mm (Depending on Batten) Ceilings 1. 10mm Plasterboard 2. 13mm Plasterboard

345 Calculating Stud Length Double Storey building may have FFL (Finished Floor Level). Allowance must be made for structural members Most Importantly Determine if there are any height restrictions Type of Roof Will affect Stud Heights

346 Top & Bottom Plates = 90 x 45 F5 Step 1 – Determine Floor & Ceiling Floor Carpet = 20mm Ceiling Gyprock = 13mm Step 2 – Calculate Stud Length Minimum Clearance = 2400mm Plus Flooring = 20mm Plus Ceiling = 20mm Wall Height = 2440mm less Wall Plates = 90mm Stud Length = 2350mm

347 Ground Floor First Floor Ground Fl Finish = Timber (40mm) First Floor = Carpet (20mm) Upper Level Joists = 200 x 50 F5 Top & Bottom Plates = 90 x 45 Step 1- Determine SFL (Structural Floor Level) SFL First Floor = (FFL First Fl) -20 (Carpet) SFL= SFL Ground Fl = (FFL Gnd) - 40 (Timber) SFL = Step 2 – Calculate Height Difference SFL First Floor = – SFL Ground Fl = Height Difference = 2.750

348 Step 3 – Structural Elements Height Diff = Less Flooring = Less Floor Joist = Less T & B Plate = Stud Length = Ground Floor First Floor

349 Carpet Both Floors (20mm) Ceilings 10mm Plasterboard (Allow 20mm) Dimensions are clear measurements Lower level plates Upper Level Plates Bottom Plate = 90 x 35 F5Bottom Plate = 90 x 45 F5 Top Plate = 90 x 45 F5Top Plate = 90 x 70 F5

350 Calculating Door Heights On Concrete Slab Using a standard 2040mm x 820mm Allow 22mm for Carpet (17mm + 5mm) 2040 mm Door Height 2mm Clearance between Door & Jamb 20mm for Jamb 10mm Clearance between Jamb & Head 15mm Clearance between Jamb & Lintel Total = 2094mm Say 2100mm

351 Calculation of Door Width

352 Calculation of Window Check with manufacturer if windows are not on site Generally at same height of doors Check on elevations for window heights 15mm Clearance between Jamb & Lintel Allow 10mm under sill

353 Window Width Care should be taken when setting out to brick bond! Client may want window to line up with internal fitting Client may want window dead center of room

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357 Lintels

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362 Construct Wall Frames Number Wall Frames Clock Wise Direction Internal Walls Left to Right Top To Bottom

363 Setting Out Plates Confirm Dimensions of Slab/ Subfloor Select Suitable Timber & Cut to Length Tack Together Mark Appropriate ID Number on Plate Mark Required Studs – In Following Order End Studs Wall Intersections Openings Common Studs

364 Setting Out Plates If required prepare a storey rod with the appropriate markings (ie Horizontal & Vertical Bond) Set out position of window and doors studs remembering to allow for required jamb studs If required adjust position to match brickbond Set out Common Studs, Jack Studs at required spacing

365 Preparing Studs Use Storey Rod (Pattern Stud) to cut required studs Mark and check out window and door studs

366 Fixing Wall Frames To Floors AS

367 Wall Frame Assembly What are Advantages & Disadvantages of Prefabricated Wall Frames?

368 Assembling Wall Frames

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374 Frame Erection

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379 Nominal Fixings For Bottom Plates AS

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