Presentation on theme: "Water Resources of Turkey Emphasis on Karst International Research Center For Karst Water Resources Hacettepe University Ankara"— Presentation transcript:
Water Resources of Turkey Emphasis on Karst International Research Center For Karst Water Resources Hacettepe University Ankara
Distribution of Precipitation Over Turkey Annual Mean=680 mmFor the Near East: 205 mm.
Climate in Turkey Humid or Arid ?
GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TURKEY
Total Potential of Water Resources In Turkey
Basins Anual Mean FlowRatio (millon m 3 )(%) Euphrates Tigris Eastren Black Sea Antalya Western Mediterrenean Eastern Mediterrenean Western Black Sea Ceyhan Seyhan Kızılırmak Çoruh Yeşilırmak Aras Sakarya Others TOTAL Potential of Surface Water Resources in Turkey
Who Is Water Rich and Who Is Poor? World Water Council 3 rd Water Forum Water Poverty Index (WPI) Among 147 countries Haiti Worst-Finland Best resources-access-capacity-use-environmental impact Why WPI: Because it makes the links between poverty, social deprivation, environmental integrity, water availability and Health enabling the policy makers and stakeholders to identify where problems exist and the appropriate measures to deal with their causes.. Is it only the amount ?
ResourceAccessCapacityUseEnvironmentWPIHDI Congo (Rep) Finland France Germany Haiti Iran Israel Italy Nigeria Oman S. Arabia Sudan Syria Turkey U. K
Problems Related To Water Resources in Turkey Quantity Quality Consequences: Depletion of groundwater level Loss of wetlands Polluted surface waters Polluted groundwater Salinization of coastal groundwaters Rapid and uncontrolled changes in land-use Rapid and uncontrolled growth Deficiencies ? Lack of advanced technologies? qualified personnel ? integrated approach? Institutional structure (vertical-lateral coordination)? policies based on knowledge of the phenomena? participation of the locals in planning and implementing? public awareness ?
DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
KARSTIFIED ROCKS IN TURKEY Surface Area : sq.km Carbonate rocks: Total: 1/3 of surface area Exposure: 1/5 of surface area Carbonate Rocks: Metamorphic>> Paleozoic Recrystallized>> Mesozoioc Detritic with varying impurities >>Paleogene-Neogene Evaporitic: Mainly within Oligocene-Miocene Clay-Clayey Units Miocene Conglomerate: Carbonate component & matrix
TECTONIC STRUCTURE OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION 1-EUROSIAN PLATE 2-AFRICAN PLATE 3-IRAN PLATE 4-SOUTH CAUCAS PLATE 5-ANATOLIAN PLATE 6-AEGEAN PLATE 7-BLACK SEA PLATE a-compressional b-extensional c- movement direction
TECTONIC PROVINCES OF TURKEY (From Sengor et. Al, 1985)
NEOTECTONIC MAP OF TURKEY
LATE MIOCENE PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL MAP OF TURKEY
DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST Criterion: Morphology & Hydrological Function Lithology Tectonics Source of Energy Gradient Erosion Base Control Climate
Lithology: Petrography: Degree of Diagenesis/Content of Impurities Thickness : Relative to erosion base controller Mode of Existence: Authocthonous/Allochthonous Tectonic: Compression: contraction/extension Tension: contraction/extension Source of Energy Gradient: Uplift (tectonics) Eustatic Sea Level Changes Interior Lake Level Changes River Incision Erosion Base Controller: Sea Level Interior Lake River Impervious Unit Climate: Wet: Cold/Hot Dry: Cold/Hot DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST
Change in Average Elevation of the Topographic Surface since Early Miocene
EVOLUTION OF CENTRAL TAURUS- CENTRAL ANATOLIA
DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST
Lithology: Mainly dense- recrystallized (Mesozoic) High degree diagenesis Moderately thick-thick-authocthounous Tectonic: West Anatolian Extensional Source of Energy Gradient:Originally uplift Erosion Base Controller: Aegean Sea Level Climate : Pronounced effect controlling karstification Morphology: Sub-Vertical to vertical development Shallow / moderately deep -intensive Drainage: Subsurface drainage-capture by surface Karst: Uncovered-sumberged Hydrogeological function: High yield aquifers Extending phreatic zone by submerge Lithology: Mainly dense- recrystallized (Mesozoic) Thick-to very thick authocthounous/allochthonous Tectonic: Extension+Contraction due to compression Source of Energy Gradient: rapid-very rapid uplift Erosion Base Controller: Mediterranean sea level Climate : Well pronounced effect Morphology: vertical deep-very deep-intensive to extensive Drainage: completely subsurface drainage Karst: bare-mainly recent-paleo in places Hydrogeological function: High to very high yield aquifers Extended vadoze zone+deep phreatic zone