Basins Anual Mean FlowRatio (millon m 3 )(%) Euphrates34.718.7 Tigris22.612.2 Eastren Black Sea19.210.3 Antalya14.47.7 Western Mediterrenean9.14.9 Eastern Mediterrenean9.04.8 Western Black Sea7.54.0 Ceyhan6.93.7 Seyhan6.33.4 Kızılırmak5.93.2 Çoruh5.63.0 Yeşilırmak5.12.7 Aras5.02.7 Sakarya5.02.7 Others29.716.0 TOTAL186100 Potential of Surface Water Resources in Turkey
Who Is Water Rich and Who Is Poor? World Water Council 3 rd Water Forum Water Poverty Index (WPI) Among 147 countries Haiti Worst-Finland Best resources-access-capacity-use-environmental impact Why WPI: Because it makes the links between poverty, social deprivation, environmental integrity, water availability and Health enabling the policy makers and stakeholders to identify where problems exist and the appropriate measures to deal with their causes.. Is it only the amount ?
ResourceAccessCapacityUseEnvironmentWPIHDI Congo (Rep)17.110.311.87.310.957.30.502 Finland12.220.018.010.617.178.00.925 France7.020.018.08.014.168.00.924 Germany6.520.018.06.213.764.50.921 Haiti184.108.40.206.55.835.10.467 Iran6.814.815.513.59.860.30.714 Israel0.816.716.810.98.653.90.893 Italy7.719.817.45.310.760.90.909 Nigeria220.127.116.110.410.143.90.455 Oman3.117.516.211.710.959.40.747 S. Arabia0.214.918.104.22.1682.60.750 Sudan22.214.171.1244.67.949.40.439 Syria6.311.814.914.08.155.20.700 Turkey7.814.813.110.710.156.50.735 U. K.7.320.017.810.316.071.50.923
Problems Related To Water Resources in Turkey Quantity Quality Consequences: Depletion of groundwater level Loss of wetlands Polluted surface waters Polluted groundwater Salinization of coastal groundwaters Rapid and uncontrolled changes in land-use Rapid and uncontrolled growth Deficiencies ? Lack of advanced technologies? qualified personnel ? integrated approach? Institutional structure (vertical-lateral coordination)? policies based on knowledge of the phenomena? participation of the locals in planning and implementing? public awareness ?
DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST Criterion: Morphology & Hydrological Function Lithology Tectonics Source of Energy Gradient Erosion Base Control Climate
Lithology: Petrography: Degree of Diagenesis/Content of Impurities Thickness : Relative to erosion base controller Mode of Existence: Authocthonous/Allochthonous Tectonic: Compression: contraction/extension Tension: contraction/extension Source of Energy Gradient: Uplift (tectonics) Eustatic Sea Level Changes Interior Lake Level Changes River Incision Erosion Base Controller: Sea Level Interior Lake River Impervious Unit Climate: Wet: Cold/Hot Dry: Cold/Hot DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST
Lithology: Mainly dense- recrystallized (Mesozoic) High degree diagenesis Moderately thick-thick-authocthounous Tectonic: West Anatolian Extensional Source of Energy Gradient:Originally uplift Erosion Base Controller: Aegean Sea Level Climate : Pronounced effect controlling karstification Morphology: Sub-Vertical to vertical development Shallow / moderately deep -intensive Drainage: Subsurface drainage-capture by surface Karst: Uncovered-sumberged Hydrogeological function: High yield aquifers Extending phreatic zone by submerge Lithology: Mainly dense- recrystallized (Mesozoic) Thick-to very thick authocthounous/allochthonous Tectonic: Extension+Contraction due to compression Source of Energy Gradient: rapid-very rapid uplift Erosion Base Controller: Mediterranean sea level Climate : Well pronounced effect Morphology: vertical deep-very deep-intensive to extensive Drainage: completely subsurface drainage Karst: bare-mainly recent-paleo in places Hydrogeological function: High to very high yield aquifers Extended vadoze zone+deep phreatic zone