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Water Resources of Turkey Emphasis on Karst International Research Center For Karst Water Resources Hacettepe University Ankara

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Presentation on theme: "Water Resources of Turkey Emphasis on Karst International Research Center For Karst Water Resources Hacettepe University Ankara"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Resources of Turkey Emphasis on Karst International Research Center For Karst Water Resources Hacettepe University Ankara http:\\www.karst.hacettepe.edu.tr

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4 Distribution of Precipitation Over Turkey Annual Mean=680 mmFor the Near East: 205 mm.

5 Climate in Turkey Humid or Arid ?

6 GEOLOGICAL MAP OF TURKEY

7 Total Potential of Water Resources In Turkey

8 Basins Anual Mean FlowRatio (millon m 3 )(%) Euphrates34.718.7 Tigris22.612.2 Eastren Black Sea19.210.3 Antalya14.47.7 Western Mediterrenean9.14.9 Eastern Mediterrenean9.04.8 Western Black Sea7.54.0 Ceyhan6.93.7 Seyhan6.33.4 Kızılırmak5.93.2 Çoruh5.63.0 Yeşilırmak5.12.7 Aras5.02.7 Sakarya5.02.7 Others29.716.0 TOTAL186100 Potential of Surface Water Resources in Turkey

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10 Who Is Water Rich and Who Is Poor? World Water Council 3 rd Water Forum Water Poverty Index (WPI) Among 147 countries Haiti Worst-Finland Best resources-access-capacity-use-environmental impact Why WPI: Because it makes the links between poverty, social deprivation, environmental integrity, water availability and Health enabling the policy makers and stakeholders to identify where problems exist and the appropriate measures to deal with their causes.. Is it only the amount ?

11 ResourceAccessCapacityUseEnvironmentWPIHDI Congo (Rep)17.110.311.87.310.957.30.502 Finland12.220.018.010.617.178.00.925 France7.020.018.08.014.168.00.924 Germany6.520.018.06.213.764.50.921 Haiti6.16.210.56.55.835.10.467 Iran6.814.815.513.59.860.30.714 Israel0.816.716.810.98.653.90.893 Italy7.719.817.45.310.760.90.909 Nigeria7.47.58.510.410.143.90.455 Oman3.117.516.211.710.959.40.747 S. Arabia0.214.916.113.77.752.60.750 Sudan7.99.19.814.67.949.40.439 Syria6.311.814.914.08.155.20.700 Turkey7.814.813.110.710.156.50.735 U. K.7.320.017.810.316.071.50.923

12 Problems Related To Water Resources in Turkey Quantity Quality Consequences: Depletion of groundwater level Loss of wetlands Polluted surface waters Polluted groundwater Salinization of coastal groundwaters Rapid and uncontrolled changes in land-use Rapid and uncontrolled growth Deficiencies ? Lack of advanced technologies? qualified personnel ? integrated approach? Institutional structure (vertical-lateral coordination)? policies based on knowledge of the phenomena? participation of the locals in planning and implementing? public awareness ?

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15 DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

16 KARSTIFIED ROCKS IN TURKEY Surface Area : 780 500 sq.km Carbonate rocks: Total: 1/3 of surface area Exposure: 1/5 of surface area Carbonate Rocks: Metamorphic>> Paleozoic Recrystallized>> Mesozoioc Detritic with varying impurities >>Paleogene-Neogene Evaporitic: Mainly within Oligocene-Miocene Clay-Clayey Units Miocene Conglomerate: Carbonate component & matrix

17 TECTONIC STRUCTURE OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION 1-EUROSIAN PLATE 2-AFRICAN PLATE 3-IRAN PLATE 4-SOUTH CAUCAS PLATE 5-ANATOLIAN PLATE 6-AEGEAN PLATE 7-BLACK SEA PLATE a-compressional b-extensional c- movement direction

18 TECTONIC PROVINCES OF TURKEY (From Sengor et. Al, 1985)

19 NEOTECTONIC MAP OF TURKEY

20 LATE MIOCENE PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL MAP OF TURKEY

21 DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST Criterion: Morphology & Hydrological Function Lithology Tectonics Source of Energy Gradient Erosion Base Control Climate

22 Lithology: Petrography: Degree of Diagenesis/Content of Impurities Thickness : Relative to erosion base controller Mode of Existence: Authocthonous/Allochthonous Tectonic: Compression: contraction/extension Tension: contraction/extension Source of Energy Gradient: Uplift (tectonics) Eustatic Sea Level Changes Interior Lake Level Changes River Incision Erosion Base Controller: Sea Level Interior Lake River Impervious Unit Climate: Wet: Cold/Hot Dry: Cold/Hot DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST

23 EARLY MIOCENE

24 MIDDLE MIOCENE

25 LATE MIOCENE

26 PLIOCENE

27 PRESENT PLEISTOCENE

28 Change in Average Elevation of the Topographic Surface since Early Miocene

29 EVOLUTION OF CENTRAL TAURUS- CENTRAL ANATOLIA

30 DESCRIPTION OF TURKISH KARST

31 Lithology: Mainly dense- recrystallized (Mesozoic) High degree diagenesis Moderately thick-thick-authocthounous Tectonic: West Anatolian Extensional Source of Energy Gradient:Originally uplift Erosion Base Controller: Aegean Sea Level Climate : Pronounced effect controlling karstification Morphology: Sub-Vertical to vertical development Shallow / moderately deep -intensive Drainage: Subsurface drainage-capture by surface Karst: Uncovered-sumberged Hydrogeological function: High yield aquifers Extending phreatic zone by submerge Lithology: Mainly dense- recrystallized (Mesozoic) Thick-to very thick authocthounous/allochthonous Tectonic: Extension+Contraction due to compression Source of Energy Gradient: rapid-very rapid uplift Erosion Base Controller: Mediterranean sea level Climate : Well pronounced effect Morphology: vertical deep-very deep-intensive to extensive Drainage: completely subsurface drainage Karst: bare-mainly recent-paleo in places Hydrogeological function: High to very high yield aquifers Extended vadoze zone+deep phreatic zone

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38 Code NameTypeAlt. (m) Q (l/s) T (C) pHEC (  S/cm) GK-1Azmak-Duvar DibiK1.715.807.361973 GK-2Azmak-KümesK115.727.402355 GK-3Cennet RestaurantK0.811.6 m 3 /s15.787.452753 GK-4Halil'in Yeri Rest.K0.614.887.521719 GK-6Deniz-1 RestaurantK0.415.987.3110447 GK-5Belediye KuyularıKu.2 30 l/s15.627.641443 GK-7Deniz-2 RestaurantK0.530 l/s15.587.335658 GK-8ÇınaraltıK0.510 l/s15.587.405522 GK-9Akbük LimanıK0.570 l/s17.327.178483 GK-10AÖren (Acısu) IK150 l/s17.077.2610846 GK-10BÖren (Acısu) IIK1.560 l/s17.177.228431 GK-11Algı KöyüK66010 l/s14.947.25535 GK-12YeniköyK8505 l/s14.367.60403 GK-13Bağyaka KöyüK60030 l/s11.468.15317 GK-15Akçapınar KöyüK91.244 m 3 /s16.467.36629 GK-16AKuyu - IKu.220 l/s16.227.75865 GK-16BKuyu - IIKu.220 l/s16.577.74658 GK-16CKuyu - IIIKu.220 l/s16.557.87554

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