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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Bellringer Compare the mountains.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Bellringer Compare the mountains."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Bellringer Compare the mountains in the photographs. Write a description of each mountain, and suggest how it might have formed. Do you know where these various types of mountains are found in the world? Have you ever visited any of them? Would it ever be dangerous to study them? Chapter F4

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives Describe the types of stress that deform rocks and the major types of folds and faults. Identify the most common types of mountains and explain the difference between uplift and subsidence. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Agenda Day 1 Today we will: Do a do now. Complete a start up activity. Learn about mountains. Day 2 Today we will: Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives compression tension folding syncline anticline fault uplift subsidence Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Deformation Whether a material bends or breaks depends on the how much stress is applied to the material. Stress is the amount of force per unit area on a given material. Different things happen to rock when different types of stress are applied. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Deformation, continued The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress is called deformation. Rock layers bend when stress is placed on them. When enough stress is placed on rocks, they can reach their elastic limit and break. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Deformation, continued The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide, is called compression. When compression occurs at a convergent boundary, large mountain ranges can form. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Deformation, continued Tension is stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object. Tension occurs at divergent plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges, when two tectonic plates pull away from each other. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Folding The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust is called folding. Types of Folds Depending on how rock layers deform, different types of folds are made. The major types of folds are anticlines, synclines, and monoclines. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Folding, continued Anticlines are upward-arching folds. Synclines are downward, troughlike folds. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Folding, continued In a monocline, rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Faulting Some rock layers break when stress is applied. The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other is called a fault. The blocks of crust on each side of the fault are called fault blocks. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Faulting, continued When a fault is not vertical, its two sides are either a hanging wall or a footwall. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Faulting, continued The type of fault depends on how the hanging wall and footwall move in relationship to each other. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust When a normal fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall. Chapter F4

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Faulting, continued When a reverse fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Faulting, continued A third major type of fault is a strike-slip fault. These faults form when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building When tectonic plates collide, land features that start as folds and faults can eventually become large mountain ranges. When tectonic plates undergo compressions or tension, they can form mountains in several ways. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Mountain Building, continued Folded Mountains form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward. Fault-Block Mountains form when large blocks of the Earth’s crust drop down relative to other blocks. Volcanic Mountains form when magma rises to the Earth’s surface and erupts. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Uplift and Subsidence Vertical movements in the crust are divided into two types—uplift and subsidence. Uplift is the rising of regions of the Earth’s crust to higher elevations. Subsidence is the sinking of regions of the Earth’s crust to lower elevations. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Uplift and Subsidence, continued Uplifting of Depressed Rocks Uplift can occur when large areas of land rise without deforming. One way areas rise without deforming is process known as rebound. When the crust rebounds, it slowly springs back to its previous elevation. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Uplift and Subsidence, continued Subsidence of Cooler Rocks Rocks that are hot take up more space than cooler rocks. The lithosphere is relatively hot at mid-ocean ridges, but cools as it moves farther from the ridge. As it cools, the oceanic lithosphere takes up less volume and the ocean floor subsides. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Uplift and Subsidence, continued Tectonic Letdown Subsidence can also occur when the lithosphere becomes stretched in rift zones. A rift zone is a set of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other. As tectonic plates pull apart, stress between the plates causes a series of faults to form along the rift zone. Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Exit Ticket What are mountains? Explain at least 2 ways in which they form.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. transform boundaries tectonic plates divergent boundaries converge diverge Chapter F4

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics Chapter F4

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics Chapter F4

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu End of Chapter F4 Show Chapter F4

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 The Deep Sea Drilling Project was a program to retrieve and research rocks below the ocean to test the hypothesis of sea-floor spreading. For 15 years, scientists studying sea-floor spreading conducted research aboard the ship Glomar Challenger. Holes were drilled in the sea floor from the ship. Continued on the next slide Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1, continued Long, cylindrical lengths of rock, called cores, were obtained from the drill holes. By examining fossils in the cores, scientists discovered that rock closest to mid-ocean ridges was the youngest. The farther from the ridge the holes were drilled, the older the rock in the cores was. This evidence supported the idea that sea-floor spreading creates new lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does conducted mean? A directed B led C carried on D guided Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does conducted mean? A directed B led C carried on D guided Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Why were cores drilled in the sea floor from the Glomar Challenger? F to determine the depth of the crust G to find minerals in the sea-floor rock H to examine fossils in the sea-floor rock I to find oil and gas in the sea-floor rock Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Why were cores drilled in the sea floor from the Glomar Challenger? F to determine the depth of the crust G to find minerals in the sea-floor rock H to examine fossils in the sea-floor rock I to find oil and gas in the sea-floor rock Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Rock closest to mid-ocean ridges is older than rock at a distance from mid-ocean ridges. B One purpose of scientific research on the Glomar Challenger was to gather evidence for sea-floor spreading. C Fossils examined by scientists came directly from the sea floor. D Evidence gathered by scientists did not support sea-floor spreading. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Rock closest to mid-ocean ridges is older than rock at a distance from mid-ocean ridges. B One purpose of scientific research on the Glomar Challenger was to gather evidence for sea-floor spreading. C Fossils examined by scientists came directly from the sea floor. D Evidence gathered by scientists did not support sea- floor spreading. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 The Himalayas are a range of mountains that is 2,400 km long and that arcs across Pakistan, India, Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. The Himalayas are the highest mountains on Earth. Nine mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth, are more than 8,000 m tall. Continued on the next slide Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2, continued The formation of the Himalaya Mountains began about 80 million years ago. A tectonic plate carrying the Indian subcontinent collided with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate was driven beneath the Eurasian plate. This collision caused the uplift of the Eurasian plate and the formation of the Himalayas. This process is continuing today. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean? A forms a circle B forms a plane C forms a curve D forms a straight line Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean? A forms a circle B forms a plane C forms a curve D forms a straight line Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, which geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains? F divergence G subsidence H strike-slip faulting I convergence Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, which geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains? F divergence G subsidence H strike-slip faulting I convergence Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A The nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains. B The Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries. C The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range on Earth. D The Himalaya Mountains formed more than 80 million years ago. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A The nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains. B The Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries. C The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range on Earth. D The Himalaya Mountains formed more than 80 million years ago. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics This illustration shows the relative velocities (in centimeters per year) and directions in which tectonic plates are separating and colliding. Arrows that point away from one another indicate plate separation. Arrows that point toward one another indicate plate collision. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Between which two tectonic plates does spreading appear to be the fastest? A the Australian and the Pacific B the Antarctic and the Pacific C the Nazca and the Pacific D the Cocos and the Pacific Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Between which two tectonic plates does spreading appear to be the fastest? A the Australian and the Pacific B the Antarctic and the Pacific C the Nazca and the Pacific D the Cocos and the Pacific Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place? F between the African and South American plates G between the Nazca and South American plates H between the North American and Eurasian plates I between the African and North American plates Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place? F between the African and South American plates G between the Nazca and South American plates H between the North American and Eurasian plates I between the African and North American plates Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question, and choose the best answer. Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. The mesosphere is 2,550 km thick, and the asthenosphere is 250 km thick. If you assume that the lithosphere is 150 km thick and that the crust is 50 km thick, how thick is the mantle? A 2,950 km B 2,900 km C 2,800 km D 2,550 km Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. The mesosphere is 2,550 km thick, and the asthenosphere is 250 km thick. If you assume that the lithosphere is 150 km thick and that the crust is 50 km thick, how thick is the mantle? A 2,950 km B 2,900 km C 2,800 km D 2,550 km Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. If a seismic wave travels through the mantle at an average velocity of 8 km/s, how many seconds will the wave take to travel through the mantle? F 318.75 s G 350.0 s H 362.5 s I 368.75 s Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. If a seismic wave travels through the mantle at an average velocity of 8 km/s, how many seconds will the wave take to travel through the mantle? F 318.75 s G 350.0 s H 362.5 s I 368.75 s Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. If the crust in a certain area is subsiding at the rate of 2 cm per year and has an elevation of 1,000 m, what elevation will the crust have in 10,000 years? A 500 m B 800 m C 1,200 m D 2,000 m Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. If the crust in a certain area is subsiding at the rate of 2 cm per year and has an elevation of 1,000 m, what elevation will the crust have in 10,000 years? A 500 m B 800 m C 1,200 m D 2,000 m Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. A very small oceanic plate is located between a mid- ocean ridge and a subduction zone. At the ridge, the plate is growing at a rate of 5 km every 1 million years. At the subduction zone, the plate is being destroyed at a rate of 10 km every 1 million years. If the oceanic plate is 100 km across, how long will it take the plate to disappear? F 100 million years G 50 million years H 20 million years I 5 million years Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. A very small oceanic plate is located between a mid- ocean ridge and a subduction zone. At the ridge, the plate is growing at a rate of 5 km every 1 million years. At the subduction zone, the plate is being destroyed at a rate of 10 km every 1 million years. If the oceanic plate is 100 km across, how long will it take the plate to disappear? F 100 million years G 50 million years H 20 million years I 5 million years Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Inside the Earth Chapter F4

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Chapter F4

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Inside the Earth Chapter F4

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Inside the Earth Chapter F4

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Restless Continents Chapter F4

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter F4


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