# Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Bellringer

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Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Bellringer Compare the mountains in the photographs. Write a description of each mountain, and suggest how it might have formed. Do you know where these various types of mountains are found in the world? Have you ever visited any of them? Would it ever be dangerous to study them?

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Objectives Describe the types of stress that deform rocks and the major types of folds and faults. Identify the most common types of mountains and explain the difference between uplift and subsidence.

Agenda Chapter F4 Day 1 Today we will: Do a do now.
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Agenda Day 1 Today we will: Do a do now. Complete a start up activity. Learn about mountains. Day 2

Objectives Chapter F4 compression tension folding syncline anticline
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Objectives compression tension folding syncline anticline fault uplift subsidence

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Deformation Whether a material bends or breaks depends on the how much stress is applied to the material. Stress is the amount of force per unit area on a given material. Different things happen to rock when different types of stress are applied.

Deformation, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Deformation, continued The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress is called deformation. Rock layers bend when stress is placed on them. When enough stress is placed on rocks, they can reach their elastic limit and break.

Deformation, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Deformation, continued The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide, is called compression. When compression occurs at a convergent boundary, large mountain ranges can form.

Deformation, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Deformation, continued Tension is stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object. Tension occurs at divergent plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges, when two tectonic plates pull away from each other.

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Folding The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust is called folding. Types of Folds Depending on how rock layers deform, different types of folds are made. The major types of folds are anticlines, synclines, and monoclines.

Folding, continued Chapter F4 Anticlines are upward-arching folds.
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Folding, continued Anticlines are upward-arching folds. Synclines are downward, troughlike folds.

Folding, continued Chapter F4
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Folding, continued In a monocline, rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal.

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Faulting Some rock layers break when stress is applied. The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other is called a fault. The blocks of crust on each side of the fault are called fault blocks.

Faulting, continued Chapter F4
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Faulting, continued When a fault is not vertical, its two sides are either a hanging wall or a footwall.

Faulting, continued Chapter F4
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Faulting, continued The type of fault depends on how the hanging wall and footwall move in relationship to each other. When a normal fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall.

Faulting, continued Chapter F4
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Faulting, continued When a reverse fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall.

Faulting, continued Chapter F4
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Faulting, continued A third major type of fault is a strike-slip fault. These faults form when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally.

Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building When tectonic plates collide, land features that start as folds and faults can eventually become large mountain ranges. When tectonic plates undergo compressions or tension, they can form mountains in several ways.

Mountain Building, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Mountain Building, continued Folded Mountains form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward. Fault-Block Mountains form when large blocks of the Earth’s crust drop down relative to other blocks. Volcanic Mountains form when magma rises to the Earth’s surface and erupts.

Uplift and Subsidence Chapter F4
Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Uplift and Subsidence Vertical movements in the crust are divided into two types—uplift and subsidence. Uplift is the rising of regions of the Earth’s crust to higher elevations. Subsidence is the sinking of regions of the Earth’s crust to lower elevations.

Uplift and Subsidence, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Uplift and Subsidence, continued Uplifting of Depressed Rocks Uplift can occur when large areas of land rise without deforming. One way areas rise without deforming is process known as rebound. When the crust rebounds, it slowly springs back to its previous elevation.

Uplift and Subsidence, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Uplift and Subsidence, continued Subsidence of Cooler Rocks Rocks that are hot take up more space than cooler rocks. The lithosphere is relatively hot at mid-ocean ridges, but cools as it moves farther from the ridge. As it cools, the oceanic lithosphere takes up less volume and the ocean floor subsides.

Uplift and Subsidence, continued
Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust Uplift and Subsidence, continued Tectonic Letdown Subsidence can also occur when the lithosphere becomes stretched in rift zones. A rift zone is a set of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other. As tectonic plates pull apart, stress between the plates causes a series of faults to form along the rift zone.

Exit Ticket What are mountains? Explain at least 2 ways in which they form.

Chapter F4 Plate Tectonics Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. transform boundaries tectonic plates divergent boundaries converge diverge

Chapter F4 Plate Tectonics

Chapter F4 Plate Tectonics

Chapter F4 End of Chapter F4 Show

Standardized Test Preparation

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4 Passage 1 The Deep Sea Drilling Project was a program to retrieve and research rocks below the ocean to test the hypothesis of sea-floor spreading. For 15 years, scientists studying sea-floor spreading conducted research aboard the ship Glomar Challenger. Holes were drilled in the sea floor from the ship. Continued on the next slide

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Chapter F4 Passage 1, continued Long, cylindrical lengths of rock, called cores, were obtained from the drill holes. By examining fossils in the cores, scientists discovered that rock closest to mid-ocean ridges was the youngest. The farther from the ridge the holes were drilled, the older the rock in the cores was. This evidence supported the idea that sea-floor spreading creates new lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges.

Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does conducted mean? A directed
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does conducted mean? A directed B led C carried on D guided

Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does conducted mean? A directed
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does conducted mean? A directed B led C carried on D guided

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Chapter F4 2. Why were cores drilled in the sea floor from the Glomar Challenger? F to determine the depth of the crust G to find minerals in the sea-floor rock H to examine fossils in the sea-floor rock I to find oil and gas in the sea-floor rock

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Chapter F4 2. Why were cores drilled in the sea floor from the Glomar Challenger? F to determine the depth of the crust G to find minerals in the sea-floor rock H to examine fossils in the sea-floor rock I to find oil and gas in the sea-floor rock

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Chapter F4 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Rock closest to mid-ocean ridges is older than rock at a distance from mid-ocean ridges. B One purpose of scientific research on the Glomar Challenger was to gather evidence for sea-floor spreading. C Fossils examined by scientists came directly from the sea floor. D Evidence gathered by scientists did not support sea-floor spreading.

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Chapter F4 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Rock closest to mid-ocean ridges is older than rock at a distance from mid-ocean ridges. B One purpose of scientific research on the Glomar Challenger was to gather evidence for sea-floor spreading. C Fossils examined by scientists came directly from the sea floor. D Evidence gathered by scientists did not support sea-floor spreading.

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Chapter F4 Passage 2 The Himalayas are a range of mountains that is 2,400 km long and that arcs across Pakistan, India, Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. The Himalayas are the highest mountains on Earth. Nine mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth, are more than 8,000 m tall. Continued on the next slide

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Chapter F4 Passage 2, continued The formation of the Himalaya Mountains began about 80 million years ago. A tectonic plate carrying the Indian subcontinent collided with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate was driven beneath the Eurasian plate. This collision caused the uplift of the Eurasian plate and the formation of the Himalayas. This process is continuing today.

Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean? A forms a circle B forms a plane C forms a curve D forms a straight line

Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean? A forms a circle B forms a plane C forms a curve D forms a straight line

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4 2. According to the passage, which geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains? F divergence G subsidence H strike-slip faulting I convergence

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4 2. According to the passage, which geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains? F divergence G subsidence H strike-slip faulting I convergence

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Chapter F4 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A The nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains. B The Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries. C The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range on Earth. D The Himalaya Mountains formed more than 80 million years ago.

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Chapter F4 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A The nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains. B The Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries. C The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range on Earth. D The Himalaya Mountains formed more than 80 million years ago.

Interpreting Graphics
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 Interpreting Graphics This illustration shows the relative velocities (in centimeters per year) and directions in which tectonic plates are separating and colliding. Arrows that point away from one another indicate plate separation. Arrows that point toward one another indicate plate collision.

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4 1. Between which two tectonic plates does spreading appear to be the fastest? A the Australian and the Pacific B the Antarctic and the Pacific C the Nazca and the Pacific D the Cocos and the Pacific

Chapter F4 Standardized Test Preparation 1. Between which two tectonic plates does spreading appear to be the fastest? A the Australian and the Pacific B the Antarctic and the Pacific C the Nazca and the Pacific D the Cocos and the Pacific

Chapter F4 2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place? F between the African and South American plates G between the Nazca and South American plates H between the North American and Eurasian plates I between the African and North American plates

Chapter F4 2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place?
Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place? F between the African and South American plates G between the Nazca and South American plates H between the North American and Eurasian plates I between the African and North American plates

Standardized Test Preparation Chapter F4 Math Read each question, and choose the best answer.

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Chapter F4 1. The mesosphere is 2,550 km thick, and the asthenosphere is 250 km thick. If you assume that the lithosphere is 150 km thick and that the crust is 50 km thick, how thick is the mantle? A 2,950 km B 2,900 km C 2,800 km D 2,550 km

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4 1. The mesosphere is 2,550 km thick, and the asthenosphere is 250 km thick. If you assume that the lithosphere is 150 km thick and that the crust is 50 km thick, how thick is the mantle? A 2,950 km B 2,900 km C 2,800 km D 2,550 km

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Chapter F4 2. If a seismic wave travels through the mantle at an average velocity of 8 km/s, how many seconds will the wave take to travel through the mantle? F s G s H s I s

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4 2. If a seismic wave travels through the mantle at an average velocity of 8 km/s, how many seconds will the wave take to travel through the mantle? F s G s H s I s

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Chapter F4 3. If the crust in a certain area is subsiding at the rate of 2 cm per year and has an elevation of 1,000 m, what elevation will the crust have in 10,000 years? A 500 m B 800 m C 1,200 m D 2,000 m

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Chapter F4 3. If the crust in a certain area is subsiding at the rate of 2 cm per year and has an elevation of 1,000 m, what elevation will the crust have in 10,000 years? A 500 m B 800 m C 1,200 m D 2,000 m

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Chapter F4 4. A very small oceanic plate is located between a mid-ocean ridge and a subduction zone. At the ridge, the plate is growing at a rate of 5 km every 1 million years. At the subduction zone, the plate is being destroyed at a rate of 10 km every 1 million years. If the oceanic plate is 100 km across, how long will it take the plate to disappear? F 100 million years G 50 million years H 20 million years I 5 million years

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Chapter F4 4. A very small oceanic plate is located between a mid-ocean ridge and a subduction zone. At the ridge, the plate is growing at a rate of 5 km every 1 million years. At the subduction zone, the plate is being destroyed at a rate of 10 km every 1 million years. If the oceanic plate is 100 km across, how long will it take the plate to disappear? F 100 million years G 50 million years H 20 million years I 5 million years

Chapter F4 Section 1 Inside the Earth

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4 Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Standardized Test Preparation
Chapter F4

Chapter F4 Section 1 Inside the Earth

Chapter F4 Section 1 Inside the Earth

Chapter F4 Section 2 Restless Continents

Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics
Chapter F4

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