Next Journal Article(s) Reading: For Monday Nov 10: Willett et al. (1985) A thermo- mechanical model of continental lithosphere, Nature
T e Estimation: T e that minimizes correlation of the load fields is permitted to vary spatially. Low T e is found in regions of high heat flow and active extension; higher T e in stable lithosphere. Seismicity and deformation tend to focus at transitions from high to low T e.
Audet & Bürgmann Nat. Geosci. 2011
So why do we keep comparing images like this?
Earth interseismic deformation is predominantly viscoelastic flow, but Flow rheology is poorly known MOTIVATION: Latychev et al, GRL, 2005 Data used to estimate viscosity include: Uplift from post-glacial rebound Pleistocene lakeshore rebound Postseismic relaxation GPS surface velocities Proxy from seismic velocities Sample the Earth Poorly Relationship Poorly Determined
Flexural isostatic model assumes a perfectly elastic plate or shell… Rocks in the real Earth fracture and flow. What does T e mean in that context? T e and Rheology
Identity relating Effective Elastic Thickness T e to flexural rigidity D RelationshipEquation Parameters “Leaf-Spring” approximation for multilayer bending D = D m + D c Young's Modulus E Poisson's Ratio Flexural rigidity and bending moment M Plate bending curvature K Definition of bending moment Truncation of bending fiber stress f by Yield Strength Envelope Depth of plane of neutral bending z n defined by minimum moment Yield Strength Envelope YSE Friction coefficient Pore fluid pressure Strain Rate Power law A, n, H * Temperature T.
Flow Rheology… (Here, represented as a yield strength envelope) depends on: Temperature T Lithology (pyroxene > olivine > feldspar > quartz) Water fugacity f H2O (and to a lesser extent) Strain rate Grain size d Pressure P. Ideally, we’d use geophysics to determine 3D variation of each field independently…
First need independent constraint of the geotherm… T e and Rheology
Buehler & Shearer, JGR 2010Schutt et al., in preparation P n velocity variation Moho temperature from P n & mineral physics Moho temperature T Moho from P n phase: