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Cold Regions Impacts on Coastal Structures Steven F. Daly Ph.D., P.E., D.WRE ERDC Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, NH 03755 Community.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold Regions Impacts on Coastal Structures Steven F. Daly Ph.D., P.E., D.WRE ERDC Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, NH 03755 Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold Regions Impacts on Coastal Structures Steven F. Daly Ph.D., P.E., D.WRE ERDC Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, NH 03755 Community of Practice in East Coast Navigation and Coastal Structures: "Inspection, Analysis, Assessment, Repair" December 5-7, 2006 Philadelphia, PA

2 Cold Regions Impacts on Coastal Structures Overview of Coastal Ice Impacts Ice Impacts on Coastal Structures –Ice Ride-up and Pile-up Laboratory Tests –Freeze-Thaw Impacts on Armor Stone –Installation Integrity National Levee Data Base Summary

3 Coastal Ice Impacts Sediment transport Ice gouging (Lake Erie, Arctic Ocean) Ride-up and Pile-up of ice Formation of ice jams at river mouths Coastal structures Blockage of water intakes Harbors and marinas Navigation

4 Ice Impacts on Coastal Structures Ice Ride-up and Pile-up Dramatic impacts, little guidance Freeze-Thaw Impacts on Armor Stone Installation integrity Pile Uplift Changing Water Levels –Rising water levels: “plucking” –Falling water levels Ice rests on riprap Ice Forces Relatively well understood; guidance for narrow structures –Narrow and wide structures; vertical and sloped –Crushing, buckling, bending, ice fracture

5 Ice Ride-up and Pile-up An ice shove or ice push occurs when moving coastal ice comes into contact with the shoreline. Wind, water drag, thermal expansion drive the ice into shore

6 Southern Shore of Lake Superior

7 Alaska: Nome & Barrow Moved Stone Green Bay, WI

8 Long Island, NY Lake Bomoseen, VT (thermal Expansion)

9 Ice Ride-up and Pile-up Ice Models by M. Hopkins

10 Laboratory Tests Guidance on Design of Rip Rap Structures (Sodhi et al, 1996, 1999)

11 “Little or no damage during ride up events” “Most damage to the riprap occurred during pileup events, when the ice could force itself between the piled ice and the riprap” “Accepting some probability (15%) of riprap failure (exposure of filter cloth) we found the median stone size needs to be 2-3 times the ice thickness ”

12 Installation Integrity Freeze-thaw (FT) impacts can be an important factor in seasonal deterioration of the cohesion in soils of vegetated earthen levees and embankments where seasonal frost forms The strength of vegetated frost-susceptible soils is often at an annual low after soil thaws in the spring when –Newly thawed soils are especially prone to mass failure and highly susceptible to water erosion –High annual water stages occur due to snowmelt Formation and expansion of ice beneath riprap Freezing of unprotected slopes Heaving; slumping when melting; piping

13 Pile Uplift Cyclic freeze-jacking process can slowly extract piles from their foundations over the course of a winter, destroying the piles and the structures attached to them. Pile jacking, Great Lakes

14 Cyclic freeze-thaw cracking Depends on rock type and susceptibility Placement of cold stone in warm water Late-winter quarrying “physical basis..unclear” Freeze-Thaw Impacts on Armor Stone TR GL 81-8 Canadian Electrical Assoc. Wuebben 1995

15 Stone damage at Cleveland Dike 1997


17 National Levee Database Initiate the development of an *SDSFIE-compliant geospatial National Levee Database including all necessary attributes of levees/floodwalls relevant to design, construction, operations, maintenance, repair, inspections, and potential for failure. ….The database structure shall be the same at every District to assure commonality of levee data with other agencies (Federal, state and local)….. The databases shall be maintained at District level and be accessible as a regional/national database by Division and HQUSACE users. In this Pilot effort, the reporting requirements of the Flood Control and Coastal Emergencies (FCCE) program, as described in EP-500-1-1, will be the used as the test metric for success. *Spatial Data Standards for Facilities Infrastructure and Environment


19 SDSFIE Levee Data Model Features piezometer_point borehole_point levee_inspection_point sand_boil_pointlevee_flood_fight_site  levee_break_site levee_inspection_line cross_section_line  encroachment_site floodwall_linelevee_centerline protected_area  levee_pump_station_site  levee_relief_well_site closure_structure_point levee_crossing_site  levee_station_point gravity_drain_site 

20 Cold Regions Impacts on Coastal Structures- Summary Ice can impact coastal structures in a variety of ways The state-of-the-art in understanding and estimating ice impacts has advanced considerably in the last 25+ years However, predicting the impact on 3-D coastal structures of large ice sheets driven by wind and water drag over existing shoreline bathymetry still remains difficult. There is still a role for model tests: CRREL is currently working with AK District to conduct model tests of ice ride-up and pile-up on proposed shore protection dikes at Barrow, AK Numerical models are increasingly accurate in their ability to simulate ice and estimate forces

21 References Sodhi, D, et al (1996) Ice action on riprap: small-scale tests. CRREL Report No: CR 96-12 U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report, 64p. Sodhi, D and C. Donnelly (1999) Ice effects on riprap: model tests. Proceedings 10th International Conference on Cold Regions Engineering, Lincoln, NH, Aug. 16-19, 1999. Putting research into practice. Edited by J.E. Zufelt, p.824-837. Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Reston, VA, USA Lutton, R.J., et al (1981) Evaluation of quality and performance of of stone as riprap or armor. US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Technical Report GL-81-8 Matheson, D.S. (1988) Performance of riprap in northern climates. Contr. Report CEA No 625 G 571. Canadian Electrical Associates. Wuebben, J (1995) Ice Effects on Riprap. River, Coastal and Shoreline Protection: Erosion Control using Riprap and Armor Stone. Edited by C.R. Throne, et al. John Wiley and Sons. Hopkins, M. (1997) Onshore Ice Pile-up: comparison between experiments and simulations. CRST 26(1997) 205-214

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