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I Rock Type II Unit Thickness III Rock Packages (Facies Patterns) IV Tectonics and Sedimentation V Sea Level Cycles VI Sequence Stratigraphy VII Geochemical.

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Presentation on theme: "I Rock Type II Unit Thickness III Rock Packages (Facies Patterns) IV Tectonics and Sedimentation V Sea Level Cycles VI Sequence Stratigraphy VII Geochemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 I Rock Type II Unit Thickness III Rock Packages (Facies Patterns) IV Tectonics and Sedimentation V Sea Level Cycles VI Sequence Stratigraphy VII Geochemical Cycles VIII Carbonate Platform Models Controls on Sedimentation Geology 3550 Sedimentation & Stratigraphy

2 I Rock Type Composition Source - Acid, Basic, Sed Climate - Weathering Carb vs Noncarb Texture (Source) Transport - Mechanism, Time/Distance Energy at Depocenter - Sea level, Topography Controls on Sedimentation

3 II Unit Thickness Sedimentation Rate Environmental Control (e.g. Schindel) Clastics - Proximity to Source & Sediment Supply Carbonates - Biogenic Production Rate Accommodation Space Tectonics/Subsidence Faulting + - Passive Margin Downwarping + Intracratonic Basin Subsidence + Sediment Loading (e.g. Foreland Basin) + Sea Level Rise + or Fall - Magnitude Rate Time

4 Controls on Sedimentation III Rock Packages (Facies Patterns) Facies Migration (Walther's Law) Eustatic Changes Vertical Tectonics Sedimentation Progradation “Give Up” (Carbonates) Impoundment (Clastics)

5 Controls on Sedimentation IV Tectonics and Sedimentation Basic Mechanism Effects Local/Basin Uplift/Erosion Provide Source Margin Subsidence - Cooling Plate Local Climate - Latitude, Elevation Global Tectono-eustatic Changes - Ridge Volume Ice/Climate - Volcanism and CO 2 Tectonic Setting of Sedimentary Environments

6 Intraplate Intracratonic Basins** Ocean Basins Continental Rises and Terraces - Trailing Edge** Convergent Settings Trenches Forearc Basins* Backarc Basins Foreland Basins* Piggyback Basins Divergent Settings Terrestrial Rift Valleys** Proto-Oceanic Rift Troughs Transform Settings Transtensional Basins* Transpressional Basins Transrotational Basins* IV Tectonics and Sedimentation (cont.) * Good preservation potential

7 Controls on Sedimentation V Sea Level Cycles Within Basin Autocyclic/Intrinsic (e.g. uplift, downwarping) Allocyclic/Extrinsic (e.g. eustasy) Global Lower Order (Long Term) - Tectonics Fischer Cycles Sloss/Vail Curves - Cycles, Supercycles, Etc. Higher Order (Short Term) - Milankovitch Orbital Mechanism Sequences Parasequences Sub-Milankovitch Cyclicity

8 Order 1 Fischer Cycle (Icehouse/ Greenhouse) 2 Supercycle, Cratonal Sequence 3 Cycle, Grand Cycle, DEPOSITIONAL SEQUENCE (ABC,ABC,ABC) Period 50+ Ma Ma Ma Thickness ~10,000 m (Erathem Scale) ~1,000 m (System Scale) ~100 m (Formation Scale) Mechanism Tectonics Orders of Cyclicity

9 Order 4 Cyclothem, PARASEQUENCE 5 Cyclothem, Rhythmite, PARASEQUENCE 6 Rhythmite, Minor Cycle >6 Rhythmite (AB,AB,AB) Period Ma ( ky) Ma ( ky) Ma ( ky) Ma ( ky) Thickness ~ m (Member Scale) ~ m ~ m ~ m Mechanism Milankovitch - Ellipticity / Eccentricity Milankovitch - Obliquity / Precession Sub-Milankovitch Climate Trends Storms, Annual Climate Change

10 Controls on Sedimentation VI Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence - unconformity-bounded package (Allostratigraphic Unit) Sequence Architecture Bounding surfaces Maximum Progradation Surface Transgressive Surface Maximum Flooding Surface Sequence Boundary (or Boundary Zone) Systems Tracts Lowstand Systems Tract Transgressive Systems Tract Highstand Systems Tract

11 Controls on Sedimentation VI Sequence Stratigraphy (cont.) Sequence Architecture Systems Tracts Lowstand Systems Tract - Clastics prograde - Carbonates karsted - LST often absent in carbonate systems Transgressive Systems Tract - Clastics impounded - Carbonate factory shuts down - Hardgrounds - Fossil lags Highstand Systems Tract - Clastics still impounded - Carbonate factory starts up and may prograde (= highstand shedding)

12 Controls on Sedimentation VII Geochemical Cycles Secular Variation CO 2 Sinks (evolution of calcareous plankton) Ca/Mg Rock Volumes Planktonic Forams (Jur. - Rec.) Planktonic Coccoliths (Trias. - Rec


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