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TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGY & PROCESS MANAGEMENT ARVIND MAYARAM INDIA YES Summit, Nairobi 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGY & PROCESS MANAGEMENT ARVIND MAYARAM INDIA YES Summit, Nairobi 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGY & PROCESS MANAGEMENT ARVIND MAYARAM INDIA YES Summit, Nairobi 2006

2 Why Tourism Sustainable Livelihood Poverty Alleviation Uplift of Rural Artists Uplift of Rural Artisans Empowerment of Women Improvement in Urban and Rural Infrastructure Better Image, Quality of Life and Attitude of People Revival of Traditional Crafts Heritage Conservation Conservation of Natural Resources TOURISM a Potential Development Driver

3 Significant multiplier effect on the economy –Every dollar spent by a tourist changes hands 13 times –Every hotel room generates direct employment to 3 and indirect employment to 8 persons TOURISM a Potential Development Driver

4 FAMINE-PROOFING Reducing absolute dependence on agriculture: –Revival of traditional arts & crafts, building art, etc. –Providing ready marketing opportunities for rural artisans –Employment generation during entire year About half a million of artisans employed in Handicraft sector in only one State of Rajasthan Handicraft Exports from one of the States, Rajasthan: – Rs mn. – Rs.43,000 mn. – Rs. 100,000 mn. TOURISM a Potential Development Driver

5 TOURISM creates: a.Jobs in situ-wild life sanctuaries, historical places, beaches, mountains etc. Does not result in migration b.Creates a large number of semi-skilled jobs for local population c.Contributes to overall economic development of areas that would otherwise be deprived

6 TOURISM India: Case Study EMPLOYMENT Every Rs.1 million ($25,000) invested creates… Tourism (directly)47.5 Jobs Tourism (indirectly)89 Jobs (sub-sector of hotels and restaurants, transportation etc.) Agriculture 44.6 Jobs Manufacturing12.6 Jobs

7 TOURISM India: Case Study TOURISM THIRD-LARGEST NET FOREX EARNER ( ) Gem & JewelryUS$ 7.40 Bn. Readymade GarmentsUS$ 5.50 Bn. Tourism US$ 3.30 Bn. COMPARATIVE FOREX INFLOW ( ) FDI$ 2.4 bn Tourism$ 2.9 bn * & figures are not used due to the effect of Sept

8 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: Pre-requisites Image/Visibility Infrastructure Tourism enabled services Heritage conservation and management Tourism friendly environment (non-intrusive, facilitating, safe and secure…) Tourism products Deepening tourist experience (repeat visits/longer stay)

9 Tourism Circuit Approach Integrated Tourist, the focal point Circuit development involves creating a circular route to be taken by tourists Based on features of tourist interest throughout the circuit route Driven by infrastructure development FDI can play a major role in inducting capital, technology, managerial skills and marketing

10 POSITIVE ROLE OF FDIIN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT POSITIVE ROLE OF FDI IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Augments investible resources Improves technological standards Improves efficiency of the domestic industry Increases competitiveness Introduces ‘latest’ technology Improves allocative efficiency Introduces higher level of technical or ‘X’ efficiency Results in diffusion of technology and knowledge to local firms Leads to labour turnover or ‘reverse engineering’ Results in income ‘multiplying’ effect

11 OBVERSE SIDE OF THE COIN Could result in cutting into the market of local firms (reduce productivity) Could result in ‘financial leakages’ –Repatriation of profits –Direct channeling of tourists’ expenditure to the home country –Remittances by expatriate workers –Imports on account of weak host country supply chain In international tourism, cross-border anti-competitive practices may adversely affect smaller tourism service suppliers from developing and least developed countries particularly vulnerable to anti-competitive policies Employment opportunities may not increase for local population because of absence of skilled manpower

12 Policy/Regulatory Framework Facilitating Institutions –Decision-support structure –Facilitating organizations –HRD institutions Infrastructure: –Physical –Social Investment Products (Opportunities) Public Private Partnership mode INVESTMENT PRE-REQUISITES

13 INITIATIVE: Policy/Regulatory Framework Tourism Development Mission/Tourism Policy Mission for Tourism Development Efforts to raise tourist arrivals Aggressive domestic and international marketing Organizing international tourism events Awareness about and professional management of heritage and raising resources for it Ensuring hassle-free and pleasant stay of tourists Tourism promotion through Internet Encourage Public Private Partnerships Rural tourism for generating employment in rural areas Eco-tourism Tourism Policy Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan Promoting Private sector investment Enhancing quality and diversifying tourism products Development of tourism infrastructure Aggressive marketing & publicity Tourism as ‘Industry’ Tourism Trade Regulation Act – to prevent possible exploitation of tourists HRD for Tourism Sector Upgrading Tourism Support Services Improved Connectivity Preservation of historical and cultural heritage and promoting Heritage Tourism Promoting Adventure, Wildlife, Eco- Tourism (as applicable)

14 INITIATIVE: Policy/Regulatory Framework Tourism (Facilitation) Law OBJECTIVES To make the country/region “Tourist Friendly”: Security for tourist, i.e. –Not to be mobbed by beggars, touts, taxi drivers etc. –Not to be cheated-cost / quality Accessible/reliable Information Good amenities & reliable services Cleanliness & hygiene Heritage conservation PROVISIONS Definitions Regulatory Anti-begging Special attention to tourists by Police Voluntary Adoption of law Bench-marking Certification Third Party Inspections Penalties Exit Clause Heritage Declaring building/area/township protected heritage Construction to be strictly regulated

15 INITIATIVE: Institutions Decision-support Structures Single Window Clearance System A. Investment Proposals B. Visa applications C. Concessions to commercially use state assets D. Licenses to operate tourism related activities (recurring)

16 INITIATIVE: Institutions Decision-support Structures Tourism Advisory Council –Top political and bureaucratic executives –Membership to include tourism trade and industry representatives, experts… –To deliberates upon policy initiatives, demands of the industry, problems with the government institutions, development plans Tourism Regulatory Authority –Accreditation –Benchmarking services –Grievance redress –Adjudication

17 INITIATIVE: Institutions Human Resource Development (Indicative) Institute of Crafts for the handicrafts sector –Design input –Professional degree/diploma in craft & design-techno-design managers –Facilitating marketing and marketing linkage intervention –Technology intervention and product and process standardization –Capacity building at artisan level –Documentation and resource centre –IPR issues related to the handicrafts sector Entrepreneurship Management Institutes –Entrepreneurship development for SMEs –Tourism specific entrepreneurship programmers for tourism enabled services

18 INITIATIVE: Institutions Human Resource Development (Indicative) Institutes of Hotel Management –HRD in hospitality industry –Managerial level courses –Language skills Food Crafts Institutes –Shop floor level skill development courses –Language skills Centre for Heritage Management –Capacity building amongst officials in the local governments, town planners, urban and civic bodies, government functionaries about heritage conservation and management issues

19 INITIATIVE: Infrastructure PublicPrivate P-P Partnership Highways, Airports, Urban Infrastructure, Power Hotels, Travel Agencies, Tour Operators, Dealers, Handicraft Stores BOT Roads, Airports, Resorts, Heritage Properties, Circuit development, Web-portals INVESTMENT

20 INITIATIVE: Infrastructure Public Finance Several key sectors like water supply, sewerage, roads, capacity building and public awareness, and heritage conservation can be covered - assistance from multilateral and bilateral funding agencies Separate budgetary provisions for tourism related activities in Forest, PWD and other related departments Public finance and assistance from organizations such as the UNESCO and the World Monument Watch for restoration of heritage monuments TOURISM Infrastructure (Illustrative) Civil Aviation ( Airports) Roads Up-gradation Project Urban Infrastructure Public facilities Information Kiosks

21 PPP: Project Development Process

22 CONCLUSIONS Tourism is the main driver of economic growth/employment generation in more than 80 countries It has the potential of addressing issues such as rural poverty, empowerment of women, strengthening the economic status of the rural artisans, earning forex etc. It is necessary to create the right environment to attract FDI by establishing progressive legal-institutional framework and facilitating organizations Circuit development approach yields fastest results HR is the key Presenting bankable projects to the investors not only increases the possibility of attracting forex but also establishes benchmarks for the future

23 Thank You


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