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The rock cycle. let’s review some basic information … Rock Cycle Before we look at the Rock Cycle in more detail,

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Presentation on theme: "The rock cycle. let’s review some basic information … Rock Cycle Before we look at the Rock Cycle in more detail,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The rock cycle

2 let’s review some basic information … Rock Cycle Before we look at the Rock Cycle in more detail,

3 Atoms combine to make compounds that combine to make minerals.

4 Minerals are Solid, Naturally occurring, Inorganic a Fixed chemical composition a Fixed chemical composition, And has Crystal form S N I F C

5 There are over 2,000 minerals alunite, amethyst, amphibole, analcite, anatase, andalusite, andesine, andradite, anglesite, anhydrite, ankerite, annabergite, anorthite, anthonyite, anthophyllite, anthraconite, anthraxolite, antigorite, apatite, aphrosiderite, apophyllite, aragonite, ardennite, argentoalgodonite, arsenopyrite, asbestos, atacamite, attapulgite, augite,awarurite, axinite, azurite, babingtonite, baddeleyite, barite, bassetite, bastnaesite, beaconite, beryl, biotite, bismuthinite, blomstrandine, bornite, bowlingite, brannerite, braunite, brochantite, bronzite, brookite, brucite, brunsvigite, buttgenbachite, byssolite, bytownite, calciovolborthite, calcite, calderite, calumetite, carnallite, carnelian, celadonite, celestite, cerargyrite, chabazite, chalcedony, chalcocite, chalconatronite, chalcopyrite, chalcotrichite, chamosite, chert, chloanthite, chlorargyrite, chlorastrolite, chlorite, clinochlore, clino-chrysotile, clinozoisite, collophane, columbite, copiapite, copper, coquimbite, cordierite, corrensite, corundum, covellite, crocidolite, cubanite, cummingtonite, cuprite, dahllite, datolite, daubreelite, delessite, diabantite, diallage, diamond, dickite, digenite, dihydrite, diopside, dioptase, djurleite, dolomite, domeykite, forsterite, francolite, freirinite, fuchsite, fulgurite, galena, garnet, garnierite, gersdorffite, gibbsite, glauconite, goethite, gold, halite, halloysite, halotrichite, harmotome, heterosite, heulandite, hisingerite, hollandite, hornblende, hyacinth, hydrocarbon, hydrohausmannite, hydromica, hydromuscovite, hydrotroilite, hypersthene, iddingsite, illite, ilmenite, isle royale greenstone, jacksonite, jacobsite, jasper, jaspilite, julgoldite, kamacite, kamiokite, kaolinite, kearsargeite, keweenawite, kinoite, koutekite, kupfferite, kutnahorite, kyanite, labradorite, langite, laumontite, lavendulan, lead, lechetelierite, ledouxite, leonhardite, lepidocrocite, lepidolite, manganoan siderite, manganocalcite, marcasite, margarite, marmolite, martite, masonite, maucherite, melaconite, melanochalcite, melanterite, melilite, mercury, mesolite, meta-autunite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite, microcline, millerite, minnesotaite, mirabilite, mohawk-algodonite, mohawkite, molybdenite, monazite, montmorillonite, muscovite, nacrite, nantokite, natrojarosite, natrolite, neltnerite, neotocite, niccolite, nontronite, oligoclase, oligonite, olivenite, olivine, orientite, orthoclase, ottrelite, palygorskite, paragonite, paramelaconite, pararammelsbergite, paratacamite, pargasite, patricianite, paxite, pectolite, pennine, pentlandite, peristerite, perthite, pharmacolite, phengite, phillipsite, phlogopite, phosphides, phosphorite, picrolite, picropharmacolite, pigeonite, pistacite, pitchblende, plagioclase, plancheite, plessite, polyhalite, posnjakite, powellite, prehnite, priorite, prochlorite, protolithionite, pyrolusite, pyrope, pyrophyllite, pyrostilpnite, pyroxene, pyrrhotite, quartz, rammelsbergite, rauenthalite, rhodochrosite, rhodonite, riebeckite, ripidolite, roscoelite, rubellan, rutherfordine, rutile, salite, salt, sanidine, saponite, saussurite, scapolite, scheelite, schefferite, schorl, schreibersite, scolectite, seamanite, semi-whitneyite, sericite, serpentine, siderite, silicon, sillimanite, silver, smaltite, smectite, soapstone, specularite, spessartite, sphalerite, sphene, spinel, spodumene, staurolite, steatite, stellerite, stibiodomeykite, stilbite, stilpnomelane, stinkstone, strontianite, sulfur, sussexite, sylvanite, sylvite, synchisite, szaibelyite, taenite, talc, tantalite, tellurium, tenorite, tetrahedrite, thomsonite, thuringite, tirodite, titanite, titanomagnetite, topaz, tourmaline, tremolite, trichalcite, tridymite, troilite, tyrolite, uralite, uraninite, uranothorite, uvarovite, vaterite,, vesuvianite, violarite, viridite, vivianite, vladimirite, wairakite, whitneyite, williamsite, wollastonite, wurtzite, xanthosiderite, xonotlite, zeolite, zircon, zoisite, zonochlorite

6 Minerals combine to form Rocks

7 Rocks Some Rocks are made up of just one mineral - like rock salt (made up of the mineral halite) that is mined near Detroit. Rocks Others Rocks are made up of many minerals - like the granites and gneisses (made up of feldspars, quartz, and other minerals) found near Marquette.

8 What is the Rock Cycle ? The rock cycle is a sequence of events involving the formation, alteration, destruction, and reformation of rocks as a result of natural processes such as magmatism ( melting of rock into magma ), erosion, transportation, deposition, lithification, and metamorphism. Glossary of Geology, Bates & Jackson, AGI

9 The mantle, crust and surface of the earth can be thought of as a giant recycling machine; rocks are neither created nor destroyed, but redistributed and transformed from one rock type to another. March 2000

10 Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle involves the recognition of three main classes of rocks all of which are found in Utah. The three rock types are …

11 CEMETERY METABOLIC INGENIOUS Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Igneous Rocks Right?

12 Igneous Igneous means “ born of fire ”

13 Igneous Rock... is formed when sediments are melted and cooled

14 Cools Very Fast - glassy with holes Cools Fast - glassy Cools Slow- small crystals Cools Very Slow- large crystals. Igneous... As Cooling Time increases, Crystal Size increases.

15 Mag-ma! Bedrock

16 intrusive extrusive Into the Bedrock On top (Exit) (crystals) (no crystals)

17 Sedimentary rock... is formed when sediment that has been broken down in some way is pressed and cemented together.

18 Sedimentary rocks are usually formed in a watery environment. Often layered Are the only rocks that contain fossils

19 Sedimentary Rock... Can have thick or thin layers Loosely Compacted Have distinct particles (Usually) dull luster

20 Metamorphic rock... is formed when rocks are changed by heat and pressure.

21 metamorphic... Metamorphic rocks will often have foliation or a distorted structure.

22 Metamorphic! Bands (can) form Metamorphic means “changed”

23 Metamorphic... Usually have Thin layers Are Tightly Compacted Have Blurred or stretched particles & are Usually shiny

24 Draw three ovals on your paper.

25 What should go in the blue oval?

26 THE ROCK CYCLE SEDIMENTARY Draw two blue arrows to the blue oval.

27 THE ROCK CYCLE SEDIMENTARY Label the process for the two blue arrows

28 THE ROCK CYCLE Weathering, erosion, deposition, cementation, compaction What should we label the green oval? SEDIMENTARY Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction

29 THE ROCK CYCLE SEDIMENTARY Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction METAMORPHIC What should we label them?

30 SEDIMENTARY Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction THE ROCK CYCLE METAMORPHIC Draw two green arrows to the green oval.

31 THE ROCK CYCLE SEDIMENTARY Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction METAMORPHIC What should we label them?

32 THE ROCK CYCLE SEDIMENTARY Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure What should we label the red oval?

33 THE ROCK CYCLE Draw two red arrows toward the red oval. SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction

34 THE ROCK CYCLE What should these red arrows be labeled? SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction

35 THE ROCK CYCLE SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Melting & Cooling

36 THE ROCK CYCLE There are three arrows missing on this diagram. Can you guess what color the are and where they go? SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Melting & Cooling

37 THE ROCK CYCLE DO YOU NEED A HINT? SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Melting & Cooling

38 THE ROCK CYCLE Who got it right?? SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Melting & Cooling

39 THE ROCK CYCLE Label the new arrows. SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Heat & Pressure IGNEOUS Heat & Pressure Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Melting & Cooling Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Cementation, Compaction Heat & Pressure Melting & Cooling

40 Igneous metamorphic Sedimentary The Rock Cycle

41 41 MAGMA Crystallization IGNEOUS

42 42 MAGMA IGNEOUS Intrusive (Plutonic) Crystallization

43 43 MAGMA Extrusive (volcanic) IGNEOUS Intrusive (plutonic) Crystallization

44 But then the EARTH’S elements Won’t leave The poor rock alone!

45 Ice wind Water ice water wind

46 They break up the stone

47 47 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Uplift Crystallization Weathering

48 48 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT Uplift Crystallization Weathering SEDIMENT

49 49 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY Uplift Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

50 50 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY Uplift Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

51 51 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

52 52 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased P&T Melting Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition Can you see any shortcuts?

53 53 MAGMA Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic SEDIMENT SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Uplift Burial Increased Pressure & Heat Melting Crystallization Weathering Erosion Transport Deposition

54 THE ROCK CYCLE

55 This diagram shows where each type of rock occurs.

56 Where do sedimentary rocks form?

57 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS form near the surface under water by COMPACTION from a few layers above.

58 Where do METAMORPHIC ROCKS form?

59 METAMORPHIC ROCKS form deep underground by Pressure from many layers above and Heat.

60 60 Where do IGNEOUS ROCKS form?

61 61 Extrusive igneous rocks form on or near the surface. Intrusive igneous rocks form below the surface.

62 62 What process is probably occurring here or did occur in the recent past?

63 63 Compaction under water - forming SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

64 64 What process is probably occurring deep under these mountains?

65 65 Heat & Pressure - forming METAMORPHIC ROCKS

66 66 What process is probably occurring here?

67 67 Melting & Cooling - forming IGNEOUS ROCKS

68 The rock cycle demonstrates the relationships among the three major rock groups It is powered by the interior heat of the Earth As well as earth’s momentum and… The energy from the sun It involves processes on the Earth’s surface as well as the Earth’s interior It connects the “hydrologic cycle” with the “tectonic cycle”. In Conclusion…

69 THE END BONUS: Which picture portrays which formation process? A. B. C. What type of rock is each process forming?

70 Special thanks to.... Beth Cook-Vernon Productions M.J. Krech the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Geological Survey Division -

71


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