Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1-2 continued Material balance and properties Uplift and subsidence. Topography, crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, 1)LATERAL TRANSPORT OF MATERIAL."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 1-2 continued Material balance and properties Uplift and subsidence. Topography, crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, 1)LATERAL TRANSPORT OF MATERIAL (tectonic extrusion) 2)VERTICAL TRANSPORT OF MATERIAL (fundamental change in physical properties (SUBDUCTION AND EDUCTION)
AIRY ISOSTASY: Thicker crust in orogenic belts gives higher topography because m > c (1)C 2 = C 1 + h ( m /( m - c ) h = (C 2 - C 1 )( m - c )/ m A thick, light crust floats high. What happens if the crust and/or mantle density change? Example: Partial eclogitization of orogenic crust, (100% below C 2n km) (2)C 2 = C 2n + [C 1 ( c - m ) - m h + C 2n ( m - c )] / ( e - m ) = C 2n + [C 2n - C 1 ) ( m - c ) - m h ] / ( e - m ) h - Elevation (above sea level) C 1 - Normal crust thickness (≈ 30 km) C 2 - Orogenic crust thickness C 2n - Orogenic crust without eclogitization - Densities of (m) mantle, (c) crust and (e) eclogitized crust
Metamorphic reactions change mineral assemblages: New minerals => different density, rheology and petrophysical properties Dilation related to 1)Gabbro => eclogite transition is ≈ - 15 % 2)Amphibolite => eclogite transition is ≈ - 18 % 3)Peridotite => serpentinite transition is ≈ + 35 % Metamorphic reactions break down minerals and so may enhanced deformation (increased strain / strain-rate)
Some density measurements of rocks with near identical geochemical compositons from the Bergen area
What are the implications for the topography in Mountain Belts? Crustal thickening=> uplift Mantle lithosphere thickening => subsidence Lets look at some examples of modelling where the petrophysical changes related to metamorphic reactions and their reactions rates have been considered.
a)No eclogitization b)Eclogitization half-time 6.4 myr c)Eclogitization half-time 3 myr a)No amphibolitization b)amphibolitization half-time 3 myr c)No tectonic denudation After Dewey et al. 1993 MODELLED TOPOGRAPHIC EVOLUTION RELATED TO THICKENING AND THINNING OF LITHOSPHERIC MANTLE AND CRUST Lithospheric thickening Lithosphere Delamination Tectonic denudation
The petrophysical effect of metamorphism. Density changes related to equilibrated prograde metamorphism of hydrated oceanic mantle lithosphere. Notice that this diagram is Particularly relevant for Benioff zones. (after Hacker et al. 2003)
Example, Costa Rica Blueschist facies earthquakes INTRA-PLATE EARTHQUAKES INTER-PLATE EARTHQUAKES Example, Japan Hacker et al. (2002)
The petrophysical effect of metamorphism. Density changes related to equilibrated prograde metamorphism of crust with, density Granitic 2.74 g/cm 3 Andesitic2.84 g/cm 3 Gabbroic2.95 g/cm 3 compositions. (Calculated by Henry et al. 2001)
Here we assumed that most of the subducted crust reacted and achieved mantle-type density. We were mostly concerned with keeping the topography realistic. The key element is the mantle-wedge above the subducted part of the Continent.
METAMORPHISM, DENSITY STRUCTURE and TOPOGRAPHY (from unpublished thesis by M. Krabbendam 1998) AIRY ISOSTASY: C 2 = C 1 + h ( m /( m - c ) C 1 - Normal crust thickness (≈ 30 km) C 2 - Orogenic crust thickness (≈ 30 km) h - Elevation (above sealevel) - Densities of (m) mantle and (c) crust
METAMORPHISM, DENSITY STRUCTURE and TOPOGRAPHY (from Krabbendam 1998) AIRY ISOSTASY: C 2 = C 1 + h ( m /( m - c ) C 1 - Normal crust thickness (≈ 30 km) C 2 - Orogenic crust thickness (≈ 30 km) h - Elevation (above sealevel) - Densities of (m) mantle and (c) crust
METAMORPHISM AND MODELLED DENSITY STRUCTURE IN THE ALPS CONVERGENCE RATES 8 (TOP) AND 4 MM/YR,( after Henry et al 2001)
MODELLED (DOTTED) AND OBSERVED (SHADED) TOPOGRAPHY OF THE ALPS (Henry et al 2001)
IMPORTANT DISTINCTION BETWEEN CONSEPTS! UPLIFT VS. SUBSIDENCE UPLIFT => SURFACE IS RAISED RELATIVE TO REFERENCE SUBSIDENCE => SURFACE IS LOWERED RELATIVE TO REFERENCE EXHUMATION VS. BURIAL EXHUMATION => ROCKS APPROACH THE SURFACE BURIAL => ROCKS MOVE AWAY FOR THE SURFACE (IRRESPECTIVE OF UPLIFT OR SUBSIDENCE)
Some important points brought out by the first lectures: Pro- and retrograde metamorphic reactions play important roles for the dynamics in orogenic belts in that they give Changes in petrophysical properties (density structure and hence evolution of topography) Reaction enhanced deformation (increased strain (strain-rate) in zones of reaction) Material balance and cross-sections, which in turn is used to estimate shortening
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