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Waves, Beaches, and Coasts Prepared by Betsy Conklin for Dr. Isiorho.

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Presentation on theme: "Waves, Beaches, and Coasts Prepared by Betsy Conklin for Dr. Isiorho."— Presentation transcript:

1 Waves, Beaches, and Coasts Prepared by Betsy Conklin for Dr. Isiorho

2 Water Waves wave height: the vertical distance between the crest (the high point of a wave) and the trough (the low point of a wave) wavelength: the horizontal distance between two wave crests (or two troughs)

3 Surf breaker: a wave that has become so steep that the crest of the wave topples forward, moving faster than the main body of the wave surf: breaking waves

4 Wave Refraction wave refraction: change in the direction of waves due to slowing as they enter shallow water

5 Longshore Currents & Rip Currents longshore currents: a moving mass of water that develops parallel to a shoreline rip currents: narrow currents that flow straight out to sea in the surf zone, returning water seaward that breaking waves have pushed ashore

6 Beaches beach: a stripe of sediment that extends from the low- water line inland to a cliff or a zone of permanent vegetation beach farce: the section exposed to wave action marine terrace: a broad, gently sloping platform that may be exposed at low tide if the shore has significant tidal action berm: a wave-deposited sediment platform that is flat or slopes slightly landward

7 Longshore Drift of Sediment longshore drift: the movement of sediment parallel to shore when waves strike the shoreline at an angle spit: a fingerlike ridge of sediment that extends out into open water baymouth bar: a ridge of sediment that cuts a bay off from the ocean which is formed by sediment migrating across what was earlier an open bay tombolo: a bar of sediment connecting a former island to the mainland

8 Longshore Drift of Sediment (cont.)

9 Erosional Coasts coast: all the land near the sea including the beach and a strip of land inland from it headlands: point of land along a coast coastal straightening: the gradual straightening of an irregular shoreline by wave erosion of headlands and wave deposition in bays

10 Erosional Coasts (cont.) sea cliffs: steep slopes that retreat inland by mass wasting as wave erosion undercuts them wave-cut platform: a horizontal bench of rock formed beneath the surf zone as a coast retreats by wave erosion stacks: erosional remnants of headlands left behind as the coast retreats inland arches: bridges of rock left above openings eroded in headlands or stacks by waves

11 Erosional Coasts (cont.) A B C D

12 Depositional Coasts barrier islands: ridges of sand that parallel the shoreline and extend above sea level A barrier island near Pensacola, Florida

13 Drowned Coasts estuary: drowned river mouth fiord : glacially cut valleys flooded by rising sea level An estuary formed as rising sea level drowned a river valley, Malibu, California

14 Uplifted Coasts Uplifted coasts have been elevated by deep- seated tectonic forces. The land has risen faster than sea level, so parts of the old sea floor are now dry land. Uplifted marine terrace, northern California. The flat land surface at the top of the sea cliff was eroded by wave action, then raised above sea level by tectonic uplift. The rock knob on the terrace was once a stack

15 Pictures All pictures used in this power point presentation were taken from the following: Carlson, Diane H., David McGeary and Charles C. Plummer. Physical Geology: Updated Eighth Edition. New York City, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2001.

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