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Generation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Tsunami WHIO, 30 Oct., 2006

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2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

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Colombo Sibolga Belawan Port Blair Vishakhapatnam 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

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Satellite altimetry

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deformation survey results Andaman Islands: most of the coasts: uplift near Port Blair: subsidence Nicobar Islands: subsidence (Malik and Murty, 2005) Banda Ache m subsidence West coast ~ 1m subsidence Simeulue Island Northern coast about 1.5m uplift Southern coast small subsidence or no change (Kaistrenko et al., 2005) Andaman Is. Nicobar Is. Sumatra Simeulue subsidence uplift no change Analysis of satellite images (Tobita et al., 2005) Port Blair

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Meltzner, et al., JGR, 2006 The minimum uplift or subsidences are estimated from the satellite images of coral heads in the sea.

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Tide gauge Data at Port Blair

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Slip distribution of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake estimated from the tsunami total seismic moment : 8.2 x Nm (Mw 9.2) 1 2 subfault slip initial rupture time (m) (min) average rupture velocity:1.9km/s

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Comparison of observed and computed tsunami waveforms at tide gauges

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Comparison of observed tsunami obtained from the satellite altimetry and computed tsunamis.

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Vertical displacement field Andaman Is. Nicobar Is. Sumatra Simeulue subsidence uplift no change Analysis of satellite images (Tobita et al., 2005)

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Average rupture velocity of 1.9 km/sec. Slip distribution of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake estimated from the tsunami total seismic moment 8.2 x Nm (Mw 9.2)

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Slip distributions of the 2004 and 2005 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from seismic waveform analyses (Ammon et al., 2005)

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Method of the inversion 78 parameters for 26 profiles 。 Total seismic moment 8.8 x Nm （ Mw9.2 ） Slip function along the profile A ： maximum slip m z ： depth of the maximum slip σ ｚ ： width of the slip pattern Subarya, et al., Nature, 2006

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Average rupture velocity of 1.9 km/sec. Slip distribution of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake estimated from the tsunami total seismic moment 8.2 x Nm (Mw 9.2)

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One mechanism to make large tsunamis

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Comparison of seismic intensity and tsunami heights for two earthquakes

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Fault parameters of the 1896 Sanriku Tsunami earthquake

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The survey of the seismic reflection and Seabeam mapping near the source region of the 1896 Sanriku tsunami earthquake W=7km H= 4km Three models for additional uplifts caused by sediments with horizontal movement of the backstop Tanioka and Seno, GRL(2001)

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Comparison of observed and computed tsunami waveforms

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Average rupture velocity of 1.9 km/sec. Slip distribution of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake estimated from the tsunami total seismic moment 8.2 x Nm (Mw 9.2)

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