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Uplift and Mantle Plumes Ross Thompson. Causes of Uplift 3 Causes: Dynamic Uplift - Hot buoyant material Buoyancy of hot lithosphere - Heated by hot asthenosphere.

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Presentation on theme: "Uplift and Mantle Plumes Ross Thompson. Causes of Uplift 3 Causes: Dynamic Uplift - Hot buoyant material Buoyancy of hot lithosphere - Heated by hot asthenosphere."— Presentation transcript:

1 Uplift and Mantle Plumes Ross Thompson

2 Causes of Uplift 3 Causes: Dynamic Uplift - Hot buoyant material Buoyancy of hot lithosphere - Heated by hot asthenosphere Magmatic Underplating - Change in isostacy (Ito, G., & Clift, P.D., 1998)

3 Uplift In The Geological Record E.g. North Sea (Tertiary) – Apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance. (Nadin 1997) Uplift ave Max. 900m Timing, distribution and magnitude are consistent with Icelandic plume, just off axis Further evidence from sediments (Mudge et al. 2004) Petrology of igneous rocks shows higher than ave. temperatures (Thompson 1974; Maclennan & Lovell 2002). No evidence of underplating from drilling

4 Uplift at Present Head of a mantle plume impinges on the lithosphere causing uplift Propagation of dykes vertically from the head of the plume. E.g. Giant radiating dyke swarms of NW North America Radial tectonic fracturing and formation of radial fractures by (Ernst, R.E., et al. 1995)

5 Problems with Plume Uplift A plume head m in diameter should produce 1000m- 2000m of uplift from seafloor. (Campbell & Griffiths 1990) No evidence of uplift in Columbia river basalts, Siberian Traps, or Ontong Java Plateau. Deccan Flood basalts does show evidence of uplift - post volcanic (Ollier & Pain 2001) - has over written pre-volcanic uplift

6 The Ontong Java Plateau Worlds largest IP Thought to be connected to the Louisville hotspot Isostacy calculations show 35km thick crust with original 7km oceanic crust (Farnetani & Richards, 1994)Farnetani & Richards, m above MSL Caused large amounts of sub-ariel volcanism

7 Iceland Uplift should be higher in west due to migration of plume eastward (Lawver, L.A., and Muller, R.D., 1994) Not seen in observations (Foulger G.R., Anderson D.L., & Natland J.H., 2003.)

8 Other Possible Causes of Uplift Changes in stress fields - i.e. crack proagation Geochemical changes – causing volume change Influx of magma body – creation of a Laccolith (Cruden, A.R. 1998)

9 Summary (1) Pre-Volcanic uplift did occur but decays and is then over printed by sub-sequent more recent uplift. (2) Uplift never did occur and the plume model is false. Uplift alternatives by themselves can not explain all uplift

10 References Campbell, I. H., Griffiths, R. W., Implications of mantle plume structure for the evolution of flood basalts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 99, Ernst, R.E., Head, W.J., Parfitt, E., Grosfils, E. and Wilson, L., Giant radiating dike swarms on Earth and Venus, Earth Sci. Rev., 39, 1-58, Green, P.F., Duddy, I.R., R.J. Bray, C.L.E. Lewis, Elevated palaeotemperatures prior to Early Tertiary cooling tbroughout the UK region: implications for hydrocarbon generation, in: J.R. Parker (Ed.), Proc. 4th Conf. on Petroleum Geology of NW Europe, Vol. 2, Geol. Sot. London, pp Lewis, C.L.E., P.F. Green, A. Carter, A.J. Hurford, Elevated late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary palaeotemperatures throughout Northwest England: three kilometres of Tertiary erosion?, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 112 (1992) Czamanske, G. K., Gurevitch, A. B., Fedorenko, V., Simonov, O., Demise of the Siberian plume: palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic reconstruction from the prevolcanic and volcanic record, North-central Siberia. Int. Geol. Rev., 40, Ollier, C., Pain, C., The Origin of Mountains. Routledge. Mudge, D.C., Jones, S.M., Palaeocene uplift and subsidence events in the Scotland–Shetland and North Sea region and their relationship to the Iceland Plume, Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 161, 2004, pp. 381–386. Foulger G.R., Anderson D.L., & Natland J.H., An alternative model for Iceland & the North Atlantic Igneous Province. Penrose Conference. P.A. Nadin et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 148 (1997) Sheth, H.C., A Historical Approach to Continental Flood Basalt Volcanism: insights into Pre-Volcanic Rifting, Sedimentation and Early Alkaline Magmatism. Earth Planetary Science Letters 168, Cruden, A.R., On the Emplacment of Tabular Granites. Journal of the Geological Society, London 155, p Foulger, G.R. and Natland, J.H., Is "hotspot" volcanism a consequence of plate tectonics? Science, 300: DePaolo, D.J. and Manga, M., Deep origin of hotspots – the mantle plume model. Science, 300:


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