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Presentation on theme: "TRANSAKSI DAN E-DAGANG"— Presentation transcript:


2 E-Dagang E-Perniagaan Perdagangan bergerak (Mobile Commerce) Pertukaran Data Elektronik Mekanisme Pembayaran

3 Internet Rangkaian luas sedunia yg menggunakan model pengkomputeran pelayan/pelanggan dan model rujukan TCP/IP Merupakan cara yang berkesan bagi individu dan organisasi utk menawarkan maklumat dan produk melalui antaramuka pengguna grafik web mudah guna diseluruh dunia

4 Faedah Internet kepada Organisasi
Kebersambungan dan capaian global Mengurangkan kos komunikasi Kos urusniaga yang lebih rendah Mengurangkan kos agensi Interaktif, anjal, dan penyesuaian Mempercepatkan pengedaran pengetahuan

5 Internet & Perdagangan Elektronik
Internet menyediakan satu set teknologi yg sedia ada untuk perdagangan elektronik yg boleh digunakan utk mewujudkan laman-laman baru bagi pasaran, jualan dan sokongan pelanggan dan menghapuskan orang tengah semasa urusan jual beli.

6 Model-model Perniagaan Internet
KATEGORI CONTOH Kedai hadapan maya, Virtual Vineyards, Security First, Network Bank Penumpu tempat elektronik Internet mail, DealerNet, Industrial Marketplace, InsureMarket Broker maklumat PartNet, Travelocity, Auto-by-Tel Broker transaksi E*Trade, Ameritrade Rumah penjelasan elektronik, OnSale Lelongan elektronik Penghantaran produk digital Build-a-Card, PhotoDisc, Sonic Net Penyedia kandungan Wall Street Journal, Interactive,, Tripod Penyedia khidmat secara tahan Cyber Media, Tune

7 E-Commerce

8 E-Commerce Doing business online
The online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing, and paying for products & services transacted on internetworked, global marketplaces of customers, with the support of a worldwide network of business partners. More than on-line shopping, encompasses other business activities

9 Categories of Electronic Commerce
Business-to-customer (B2C): Retailing of products and services directly to individual customers Business-to-business (B2B): Sales of goods and services among businesses Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): Individuals use Web for private sales or exchange

10 Location is not a factor
B2C Location is not a factor Must build customer satisfaction, loyalty, & relationships Success factors Selection and value Offer a good selection of attractive products and services Build a reputation for high quality, guaranteed satisfaction, and top customer support Performance and service Site must be efficiently designed for ease of access, shopping, and buying Service must be friendly and helpful

11 B2C Success factors Look and feel Advertising and incentives
Attractive storefront, shopping areas, and multimedia product catalogs Advertising and incentives Targeted, personalized ads Incentives include Coupons, Discounts, Special offers, Vouchers for other web services Personal attention Encourages customers to buy and make return visits Welcomed by name, Greeted with special offers Guided to the parts of the site that you are most interested in Relationship building

12 B2C Success factors Community relationship Security and reliability
a feeling of belonging to a unique community Virtual communities Discussion forums, Newsgroups, Chat rooms, Message boards Cross-links to related web communities Security and reliability Customers must feel confident regarding the security of their… Credit card, Personal information, Transaction details Must feel that you are dealing with a trustworthy business. Reliability: information asymmetry

13 The wholesale and supply side of the commercial process
B2B The wholesale and supply side of the commercial process Businesses buy, sell, or trade with other businesses Includes… Electronic data interchange Electronic funds transfer

14 Benefits to the Consumer
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Benefits to the Consumer Cost/ Sweater Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer $48.50 $40.34 $20.45

15 Electronic Commerce Information Flows

16 E-Commerce Revenue Model
How is google making money? How is yahoo making money? How is making money? How is making money?

17 How is google making money?
How is making money? How is making money?

18 E-business

19 E BUSINESS The use of nearly any information technologies or systems to support the business. The use of Internet technologies to internetwork and empower business processes, Electronic commerce, and, Enterprise communication & collaboration within a company & with its customers, suppliers, & other business stakeholders. Is not synonymous with e-commerce. It is much broader in scope, going beyond transactions to signify the use of the internet. Any type of business activities.

20 Benefits of Intranet Connectivity: accessible from most computing platforms Can be tied to internal corporate systems and core transaction databases Can create interactive applications Scalable to larger or smaller computing platforms

21 Easy-to-use, universal Web interface Low start-up costs
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Benefits of Intranets Easy-to-use, universal Web interface Low start-up costs Richer, more responsive information environment Reduced information distribution costs

22 Finance and accounting Human resources Sales and marketing
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Functional Applications of Intranet Finance and accounting Human resources Sales and marketing Manufacturing and production

23 Functional Applications of Intranets
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Functional Applications of Intranets Figure 4-8

24 General ledger reporting Project costing Annual reports Budgeting
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Finance and Accounting General ledger reporting Project costing Annual reports Budgeting

25 Company Employees On-line publishing of corporate policy
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Human Resources Company On-line publishing of corporate policy Job postings and internal job transfers Company telephone directories, and training Employees Healthcare Employee savings Competency tests

26 Promotional campaigns Sales presentations Sales contracts
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Sales and Marketing Competitor analysis Price updates Promotional campaigns Sales presentations Sales contracts

27 Maintenance schedules Design specifications Machine outputs
ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM Manufacturing and Production Quality measurements Maintenance schedules Design specifications Machine outputs Order tracking

28 Mobile Commerce

29 Mobile commerce (m-commerce):
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE M-Commerce and Next Generation Marketing Mobile commerce (m-commerce): Wireless devices used to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to-business e-commerce transactions over the Internet Extend personalization by delivering new value-added services directly to customers at any time and place

30 Customer Personalization
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Customer Personalization Figure 4-4

31 Electronic Data Interchange

32 Electronic Data Interchange
Enables the computer-to computer exchange between two organizations of standard transaction Examples: Transactions are through the network, eliminating the printing and handling of paper at one end and the inputting of data at the other

33 Business-To-Business Electronic Commerce
Automation of purchase, sale transactions from business to business Private industrial networks (private exchanges): Coordination between companies for efficient supply chain management and collaborative activities The network is owned by the buyer and it permits the firm and designated suppliers, distributors and others business partners to share product design and development, marketing and others Ritu, plz check the content

34 A Private Industrial Network
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE A Private Industrial Network Figure 4-5

35 Net marketplaces: On-line marketplaces, point-to-point connections, integrated information
Also called e-hubs : provide a single digital marketplace based on Internet technology for many different buyers and sellers more transaction oriented than private industrial network, generating revenue from purchase and sale transactions and other services provided to clients

36 A Net Marketplace Figure 4-6
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE A Net Marketplace Figure 4-6

37 Electronic Payment Processes

38 Electronic Payment Processes
Processes are complex Near anonymous nature of transactions Security issues Wide variety of debit and credit alternatives Wide variety of financial institutions and intermediaries Web payment processes Credit cards Purchase orders Electronic shopping chart

39 Electronic Payment Processes
Electronic funds transfer (EFT) Uses a variety of IT to capture and process money and credit transfers between banks and businesses and their customers ATMs Pay-by-phone Web-based PayPal & Bill Point (cash transfers) CheckFree and PayTrust (automatic bill paying services) Electronic bill payment Point-of-sale terminals linked to bank EFT systems

40 Electronic Commerce Payment Systems

41 Enterprise Portal
Introduction What is Enterprise Information Portal? Benefit Enterprise Portal About CIGNA Benefits Recommendation

42 Introduction What is Enterprise Information Portal?
The Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) is a concept for a Web site that serves as a single gateway to a company's information and knowledge base for employees and possibly for customers, business partners, and the general public as well In one model, an EIP is made up of these elements: Access/Search, Categorization, Collaboration, Personalization, Expertise and profiling, Application integration, Security Access/search: Access/search allows a user to get all the information needed (but no more) in the desired context. For example, a loan officer does not need marketing information to approve a loan. An EIP makes sure the loan officer gets only the information needed. Categorization: An EIP categorizes all information so that it is delivered to the user within the context needed (think of the subject structure on Yahoo) Collaboration: An EIP allows individuals to collaborate regardless of geographical location. Personalization: The information provided to individuals using an EIP is personalized to that person?s role, preferences, and habits. Expertise and profiling: Expertise and profiling is essential for the collaboration element of an EIP. Individuals within an enterprise are profiled according to their experience and competencies. If an individual needs to collaborate with others, he can choose those that are qualified for the project. Application integration: This allows individuals to deliver, access, and share information regardless of applications used. Security: This provides information to users based on security clearance. The user logs on and is given access only to information that the user is authorized to access

43 Benefits of Portals Increase Productivity and Efficiency
Integrate information and applications in central location with single and simple User Interface (UI). Eliminate info glut through centralized organization and clean presentation. Speed revisioning, improve time-to-market through closer collaboration. Increase Employee Satisfaction Provide self-service access to benefits info, company news, employee directory, training, IT helpdesk, travel booking; Find information fast — better UI, personalization. Improve Communication and Collaboration Cost-effective platform for corporate communications, company/industry news; Speed decision-making, work across functions and geographies; Eliminate redundant processes, preventable mistakes.

44 Benefits of Portals Reduce Costs Create New Revenue Opportunities
Reduce demands on IT, administrative costs of redundant processes; Save money from printing and distribution by publishing directly to the intranet; Roll out new applications and services faster without associated training costs. Create New Revenue Opportunities Build and foster customer relationships; Increase sales through new direct channel; Offer "sticky" services that build loyalty within existing customer base

45 About CIGNA was formed in 1982 through the combination of INA Corporation and Connecticut General Corporation. Our name mixes the letters INA and CG together. Today, CIGNA's service mark, the Tree of Life, symbolizes the corporation's culture, mission and products. Like a strong and healthy tree, CIGNA has deep roots For more than 125 years, the CIGNA companies have been helping people lead healthier, more secure lives. CIGNA Corporation's subsidiaries are leading providers of employee benefits in the United States. Their products and services include managed and indemnity health care coverage; group life, accident and disability insurance; retirement services; and investment management. They also offer life insurance and employee benefits in selected international markets.


47 Benefits of Improved Customer Satisfaction
With the personalization and self-service capabilities of the portal, CIGNA plan participants can manage their retirement plans and access their health care information online. Instantly review medical and dental claims to better manage their health plans Perform online transactions, such as ordering medications or choosing a doctor Manage their retirement and investment accounts, including view balance details, move 401(k) funds between accounts and change contributions Access a consolidated, interactive snapshot of their investment plans Receive personalized health and investment

48 Questions

49 Thanks You


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