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TRANSAKSI DAN E-DAGANG Bab 5. E-DagangE-Perniagaan Perdagangan bergerak (Mobile Commerce) Pertukaran Data Elektronik Mekanisme Pembayaran.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSAKSI DAN E-DAGANG Bab 5. E-DagangE-Perniagaan Perdagangan bergerak (Mobile Commerce) Pertukaran Data Elektronik Mekanisme Pembayaran."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSAKSI DAN E-DAGANG Bab 5

2 E-DagangE-Perniagaan Perdagangan bergerak (Mobile Commerce) Pertukaran Data Elektronik Mekanisme Pembayaran

3 Internet Rangkaian luas sedunia yg menggunakan model pengkomputeran pelayan/pelanggan dan model rujukan TCP/IP Merupakan cara yang berkesan bagi individu dan organisasi utk menawarkan maklumat dan produk melalui antaramuka pengguna grafik web mudah guna diseluruh dunia

4 Faedah Internet kepada Organisasi Kebersambungan dan capaian global Mengurangkan kos komunikasi Kos urusniaga yang lebih rendah Mengurangkan kos agensi Interaktif, anjal, dan penyesuaian Mempercepatkan pengedaran pengetahuan

5 Internet & Perdagangan Elektronik Internet menyediakan satu set teknologi yg sedia ada untuk perdagangan elektronik yg boleh digunakan utk mewujudkan laman-laman baru bagi pasaran, jualan dan sokongan pelanggan dan menghapuskan orang tengah semasa urusan jual beli.

6 Model-model Perniagaan Internet KATEGORICONTOH Kedai hadapan maya Amazon.com, Virtual Vineyards, Security First, Network Bank Penumpu tempat elektronik Internet mail, DealerNet, Industrial Marketplace, InsureMarket Broker maklumat PartNet, Travelocity, Auto-by-Tel Broker transaksi E*Trade, Ameritrade Rumah penjelasan elektronik Bid.com, OnSale Lelongan elektronik Priceline.com Penghantaran produk digital Build-a-Card, PhotoDisc, Sonic Net Penyedia kandungan Wall Street Journal, Interactive, Quote.com, Tripod Penyedia khidmat secara tahan Cyber Media, Tune Up.com

7 E-Commerce

8 Doing business online The online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing, and paying for products & services transacted on internetworked, global marketplaces of customers, with the support of a worldwide network of business partners. More than on-line shopping, encompasses other business activities E-Commerce

9 Categories of Electronic Commerce Business-to-customer (B2C): Retailing of products and services directly to individual customersBusiness-to-customer (B2C): Retailing of products and services directly to individual customers Business-to-business (B2B): Sales of goods and services among businessesBusiness-to-business (B2B): Sales of goods and services among businesses Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): Individuals use Web for private sales or exchangeConsumer-to-consumer (C2C): Individuals use Web for private sales or exchange ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

10 B2C Location is not a factor Must build customer satisfaction, loyalty, & relationships Success factors Selection and value Offer a good selection of attractive products and services Build a reputation for high quality, guaranteed satisfaction, and top customer support Performance and service Site must be efficiently designed for ease of access, shopping, and buying Service must be friendly and helpful

11 B2C Success factors Look and feel Attractive storefront, shopping areas, and multimedia product catalogs Advertising and incentives Targeted, personalized ads Incentives include – Coupons, Discounts, Special offers, Vouchers for other web services Personal attention Encourages customers to buy and make return visits Welcomed by name, Greeted with special offers Guided to the parts of the site that you are most interested in Relationship building

12 B2C Success factors Community relationship a feeling of belonging to a unique community Virtual communities – Discussion forums, Newsgroups, Chat rooms, Message boards – Cross-links to related web communities Security and reliability Customers must feel confident regarding the security of their… – Credit card, Personal information, Transaction details Must feel that you are dealing with a trustworthy business. Reliability: information asymmetry

13 B2B The wholesale and supply side of the commercial process Businesses buy, sell, or trade with other businesses Includes… Electronic data interchange Electronic funds transfer

14 Benefits to the Consumer Cost/ Sweate r Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer $48.50 $40.34 $20.45 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

15 Electronic Commerce Information Flows ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

16 E-Commerce Revenue Model How is google making money? How is yahoo making money? How is amazon.com making money? How is 50below.com making money?

17

18 E-business

19 The use of nearly any information technologies or systems to support the business. The use of Internet technologies to internetwork and empower business processes, Electronic commerce, and, Enterprise communication & collaboration within a company & with its customers, suppliers, & other business stakeholders. Is not synonymous with e-commerce. It is much broader in scope, going beyond transactions to signify the use of the internet. Any type of business activities. E BUSINESS

20 Benefits of Intranet Connectivity: accessible from most computing platforms Can be tied to internal corporate systems and core transaction databases Can create interactive applications Scalable to larger or smaller computing platforms

21 Easy-to-use, universal Web interface Low start-up costs Richer, more responsive information environment Reduced information distribution costs Benefits of Intranets ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

22 Finance and accounting Human resources Sales and marketing Manufacturing and production Functional Applications of Intranet ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

23 Figure 4-8 Functional Applications of Intranets ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

24 Finance and Accounting General ledger reporting Project costing Annual reports Budgeting ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

25 Human Resources Company On-line publishing of corporate policy Job postings and internal job transfers Company telephone directories, and training EmployeesHealthcare Employee savings Competency tests ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

26 Sales and Marketing Competitor analysis Price updates Promotional campaigns Sales presentations Sales contracts ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

27 Manufacturing and Production Quality measurements Maintenance schedules Design specifications Machine outputs Order tracking ELECTRONIC BUSINESS AND THE DIGITAL FIRM

28 Mobile Commerce

29 M-Commerce and Next Generation Marketing Mobile commerce (m-commerce): Wireless devices used to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to- business e-commerce transactions over the InternetWireless devices used to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to- business e-commerce transactions over the Internet Extend personalization by delivering new value-added services directly to customers at any time and placeExtend personalization by delivering new value-added services directly to customers at any time and place ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

30 Customer Personalization Figure 4-4 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

31 Electronic Data Interchange

32 Enables the computer-to computer exchange between two organizations of standard transaction Examples: Transactions are through the network, eliminating the printing and handling of paper at one end and the inputting of data at the other

33 Business-To-Business Electronic Commerce Automation of purchase, sale transactions from business to business Private industrial networks (private exchanges): Coordination between companies for efficient supply chain management and collaborative activitiesPrivate industrial networks (private exchanges): Coordination between companies for efficient supply chain management and collaborative activities The network is owned by the buyer and it permits the firm and designated suppliers, distributors and others business partners to share product design and development, marketing and othersThe network is owned by the buyer and it permits the firm and designated suppliers, distributors and others business partners to share product design and development, marketing and others ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

34 A Private Industrial Network Figure 4-5 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

35 Net marketplaces: On-line marketplaces, point- to-point connections, integrated information Net marketplaces: On-line marketplaces, point- to-point connections, integrated information Also called e-hubs : provide a single digital marketplace based on Internet technology for many different buyers and sellers more transaction oriented than private industrial network, generating revenue from purchase and sale transactions and other services provided to clients more transaction oriented than private industrial network, generating revenue from purchase and sale transactions and other services provided to clients

36 A Net Marketplace Figure 4-6 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

37 Electronic Payment Processes

38 Processes are complex Near anonymous nature of transactions Security issues Wide variety of debit and credit alternatives Wide variety of financial institutions and intermediaries Web payment processes Credit cards Purchase orders Electronic shopping chart

39 Electronic Payment Processes Electronic funds transfer (EFT) Uses a variety of IT to capture and process money and credit transfers between banks and businesses and their customersATMsPay-by-phoneWeb-based – PayPal & Bill Point (cash transfers) – CheckFree and PayTrust (automatic bill paying services) Electronic bill payment Point-of-sale terminals linked to bank EFT systems

40 Electronic Commerce Payment Systems ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

41 Introduction What is Enterprise Information Portal? Benefit CIGNA.com Enterprise Portal About CIGNA BenefitsRecommendation

42 Introduction What is Enterprise Information Portal? The Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) is a concept for a Web site that serves as a single gateway to a company's information and knowledge base for employees and possibly for customers, business partners, and the general public as well In one model, an EIP is made up of these elements: Access/Search, Categorization, Collaboration, Personalization, Expertise and profiling, Application integration, Security

43 Benefits of Portals Increase Productivity and Efficiency Integrate information and applications in central location with single and simple User Interface (UI). Eliminate info glut through centralized organization and clean presentation. Speed revisioning, improve time-to-market through closer collaboration. Increase Employee Satisfaction Provide self-service access to benefits info, company news, employee directory, training, IT helpdesk, travel booking; Find information fast — better UI, personalization. Improve Communication and Collaboration Cost-effective platform for corporate communications, company/industry news; Speed decision-making, work across functions and geographies; Eliminate redundant processes, preventable mistakes.

44 Reduce Costs Reduce demands on IT, administrative costs of redundant processes; Save money from printing and distribution by publishing directly to the intranet; Roll out new applications and services faster without associated training costs. Create New Revenue Opportunities Build and foster customer relationships; Increase sales through new direct channel; Offer "sticky" services that build loyalty within existing customer base Benefits of Portals

45 About CIGNA.com CIGNA was formed in 1982 through the combination of INA Corporation and Connecticut General Corporation. Our name mixes the letters INA and CG together. Today, CIGNA's service mark, the Tree of Life, symbolizes the corporation's culture, mission and products. Like a strong and healthy tree, CIGNA has deep roots For more than 125 years, the CIGNA companies have been helping people lead healthier, more secure lives. CIGNA Corporation's subsidiaries are leading providers of employee benefits in the United States. Their products and services include managed and indemnity health care coverage; group life, accident and disability insurance; retirement services; and investment management. They also offer life insurance and employee benefits in selected international markets.

46 CIGNA.com

47 Benefits of CIGNA.com Improved Customer Satisfaction With the personalization and self-service capabilities of the portal, CIGNA plan participants can manage their retirement plans and access their health care information online. Instantly review medical and dental claims to better manage their health plans Perform online transactions, such as ordering medications or choosing a doctor Manage their retirement and investment accounts, including view balance details, move 401(k) funds between accounts and change contributions Access a consolidated, interactive snapshot of their investment plans Receive personalized health and investment

48 Questions

49 Thanks You


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