Presentation on theme: "Distribution Industry Making the Connections, Selling the Goods By Janetta Soup & Qiang Han Distribution Industry BY Janetta Soup & Qiang Han."— Presentation transcript:
Distribution Industry Making the Connections, Selling the Goods By Janetta Soup & Qiang Han Distribution Industry BY Janetta Soup & Qiang Han
Outline The Structure Global Logistics Transportation Technology (E-Commerce) Case Analysis: Amazon. COM & SCM Role of State Transnational Retailing ???
The structure of the distribution Industries Definition of Distribution Physical movement of materials and goods - transportation infrastructure Transmission and manipulation of information Object and Primary Purpose Minimize logistics costs while delivering maximum customer service Minimize time-space friction & max speed
The Structure of Distribution Industries Essential Function Intermediation between buyers and sellers at all stages of the production chain Driven by the demands of the final consumer ( In reality, there are political, and other boundaries to complicate the basic system, such as…)
The structure of the distribution Industries Two Barriers to Distribution : Physical Conditions: Land/Water interfaces Political Boundaries: Customs clearance, tariffs, duties, administration and the like
The structure of the distribution Industries Major Types of Organization Transportation companies – Nedlloyd Logistics Service Provider – FedEx Wholesalers – Costco Trading Companies – Sogo Shosha Retailers – Wal-Mart E-tailers – Amazon. COM
Global Logistics What is Logistics : Logistics management describes the integration of activities necessary to ensure the efficient flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, and finished goods from producers to customers. Seven “R”s Right product, Right quantity, Right condition, Right place, Right time, Right cost Right customers.
Global Logistics Four Major Types of Logistics Service Firm: Port to port, door to door, desk to desk, pocket to pocket.
Global Logistics Trading Companies Trading companies are one the oldest forms of organization in the distribution services Long – distance trade Facilitating trade in materials and products
Global Logistics Trading Companies Japanese Sogo Shosha: “General trading Company ” Initially to organize exchange and distribution within the Japanese domestic market First Japanese companies to invest on a large scale outside Japan Organize the flow of imports of much-needed primary materials for the resource-poor Japanese economy Channel Japanese exports of manufactures to overseas markets “Third-country trade”
Japan Sogo Shosha Perform Four Specific Functions: Trading and transactional intermediation Financial intermediation Information gathering Organization and coordination of complex business systems
Transportation Transportation provides the movement of goods necessary in the supply chain. Five basic modes of transportation are: Airlines Motor carriers Pipelines Railroads Water carriers
Transportation-Continued All transportation modes can be evaluated on these seven criteria : Cost - charges for transportation Speed - time of transit Reliability - meeting schedules on time Capability - ability to transport various products Flexibility - door-to-door delivery Capacity - ability to carry amount of tons in trip Frequency - scheduling
Transportation Chart AdvantagesDisadvantages Airlines Very fast Frequent departures Reasonably reliable High Cost Limited capabilities Small volume shipments Motor Carriers Most flexible Fairly fast Fairly reliable Fairly costly Size & weight restricted Weather sensitive Pipelines Very reliable High capacity Low cost Frequent departures Very slow Low capability Low flexibility Railroads High capability High flexibility Low cost Low reliability Sometimes slow Water Carriers High capability High capacity Low cost Slow Low flexibility Low reliability
Transportation Continued Intermodal transportation Using more than one mode of transportation Piggyback Container On FlatCar (COFC) Roll-On-Roll-Off (RO- RO)
Technology Technological innovations have impacted: Speed Flexibility Reliability in the distribution industry.
Technology continued Three key elements of distribution systems Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)- large quantities of data sent electronically Bar Code Systems – each product item distinct identity Distribution Centers – faster and frequent turn over rate
Technology continued E-Commerce (EC) Definition: Buying and selling goods and services over the Internet. Categories of EC
Technology continued Methods of fulfilling EC orders
Technology continued Benefits of EC Companies and publishers have a global presence, and the customer has global choices and easy access to information. Companies can improve competitiveness and quality of service by allowing access to their services anyplace, anytime. Companies can also monitor customers’ choices and requests electronically. Supply chain response times are shortened. Firms can substantially reduce transaction costs, which allows for price reductions or cost savings. Companies that provide purchasing and support services through the Web can save significant personnel costs. EC levels the playing field for small companies that cannot afford the same infrastructure and marketing programs as their larger counterparts.
Case Analysis – Amazon. COM Amazon. COM Distribution offers traditional retailers a cost advantage Shipping costs on a per unit basis are much higher for an Internet firm that ships individual orders directly to consumers Traditional SystemsInternet Systems Central Warehouses Distribution Centers Retail Outlets Customers
Case Analysis – Amazon. COM Time Reduce Lead Time Quick and efficient consumer response Dependability Safe delivery, safe purchase Communication 2 way link between Amazon and its customers Forecast customer needs Convenience Minimize searching effort for buyer with technology
Case Analysis – Amazon. COM Technology: Amazon. COM uses software to more accurately forecast purchasing patterns by region, allowing it to give suppliers better information about delivery dates and volumes. Third Party Providers: Amazon. COM uses third-party logistics providers to transport the orders directly to their customers; they often send packages via Mail, UPS, FedEx, and Airborne Express. Transportation Time: 99% of the orders were shipped and delivered on time. Inventory Management: Seven huge distribution centers, keep inventory of more than 2.7 million products - key differences between Amazon. COM and its competitor.
Case Analysis – Amazon. COM Tracking your order at Amazon.com Amazon
Supply Chain Management (SCM) SCM is the Distribution Centre for Wal- Mart Located in Calgary, AB Centre is just under square feet Ships to many Wal-Mart stores across western Canada
SCM continued Step up from JIT system Focuses on: Cross-docking Pick-to-light Put-to-light
Role of States Regulation Transportation & Communications Retailing Regulatory framework Control over own National space Safety & Efficiency
Role of State continued Deregulation Air transportation industry Two examples: US vs. UK US vs. Hong Kong
Transnational Retailing Retailing is the final link in the production chain. Retailing has always had a predominantly domestic orientation. Some of the world’s largest retailers in terms of sales revenues continue to be entirely embedded in their domestic market.
Transnational Retailing Two dimensions to the transnational operations of retailing firms Selling VS. Sourcing
Transnational Retailing Motivations for Transnationalization of a Retail Firm’s Operation: Saturation of the domestic market Intensification of competition in the domestic market Regulatory constraints in the domestic market Perception of profitable opportunities overseas Desire to exploit a firm’s specific advantages in new markets Ways for retailers to Enter a Foreign Market : Build a new store Merge with or to acquire an existing firm in the target market Enter into a collaboration with a domestic firm within the target market through licensing and franchising
Transnational Retailing In 1999, only four retail firms were among the world’s top 100 transnational corporations. In terms of TNI: RankTNI Company Country Royal Ahold Holland Metro Germany Wal-Mart U.S
Pop Quiz What are the seven “R”s for Logistics? Right product, Right quantity, Right condition, Right place, Right time, Right cost, Right customers. What are the five modes of transportation? Airline, motor carrier, pipeline, railroad, water carrier. What are the two barriers in the distribution industry? Physical barrier, political barrier. What are the ways for retailers to enter a foreign market? (Name 2 out of 3) Build a new store Merge with or to acquire an existing firm in the target market Enter into a collaboration with a domestic firm within the target market through licensing and franchising
Pop Quiz What are the differences between pick-to-light and put- to-light? Put to light: emptying the box Pick to light: filling the box Name 2 out of the 4 types of logistics service firms Traditional transportation, asset based, skill based, and network logistics provider In what ways has technology impacted the distribution industry? Speed, reliability, flexibility.
Sources Dicken, Peter. Global Shift. Fourth edition. The Guilford Press Bloomberg, David. Stephen, Lemay. Joe B. Hanna. Logistics. Prentice Hall.