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ISYS 263 Introduction to Information Systems David Chao.

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1 ISYS 263 Introduction to Information Systems David Chao

2 Welcome to the Information Age Information Age/society: –the majority of workers are involved in the creation, distribution, and application of information. Knowledge Workers: Workers involved in the creation, distribution, and application of information. –Businesses depend on information technology to get their work done.

3 Time Magazine’s Person of the Year You For seizing the reins of the global media –Tila Tequila: The Madonna of MySpace –Leila: ONELYGIRL15, the real lonely girl of YouTube –Smosh: Intertainer –Kamini, French rapper For founding and framing the new digital democracy –Lane Hudson, the Washington Whistle-Blogger For working for nothing and beating the pros at their own games –Mil-Blogger Captain Lee Kelley: “No one knows what’s going on better than the soldiers on the front lines.” –Citizen reporter

4 Some Newspaper Titles Beefy Google profit boots stocks –4 th quarter proft: 204 million, revenue: 1.03 billion Online auction scans soar – complaints nearly double –Problem: challenge and opportunity Shoppers can pay for their groceries with the touch of a finger –Biometric service Law hasn’t deterred e-mail spammers –Anti-Spam law, Can Spam Act –80% of all email sent Phishing WeBloggin, RSS

5 Web 2.0 Web 2.0 refers to a perceived or proposed second generation of internet-based services—such as social networking sites, wikis, that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users. –Wikimedia –MySpace –Web syndication

6 Web Syndication Web syndication is a form of syndication in which a section of a website is made available for other sites to use. RSS: Really Simple Syndication

7 Examples of E-Commerce Amazon Associates: –'s affiliate marketing program. By linking to Amazon products and services you can add compelling content for your site visitors enjoyment and receive up to 8.5% in referral fees for doing so. –aStore eBay Stores: –An eBay Store helps you get more out of eBay's access to millions of shoppers worldwide. By showcasing all of your merchandise in one central location, an eBay Store creates a central shopping destination where buyers can learn more about you, your products, and your policies.

8 Why study information systems? An end-user perspective –Enhance personal productivity, and the productivity of their work groups and department. –Increase your opportunities for success: be aware of the management problems and opportunities presented by the information technology.

9 Why study information systems? An enterprise perspective: Information systems play a vital role in the success of an enterprise. –Efficient operations –Effective management –Competitive advantage

10 Information System is a major functional area of business A major part of the resources of an enterprise and its cost of doing business. An important factor affecting operational efficiency, employee productivity, customer service, etc. A major source of information needed to promote effective decision making. An important ingredient in developing competitive products and services that give an organization a strategic advantage in the marketplace. A challenge career opportunity.

11 Techies might finally be able to move into top management More Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are reporting directly to CEOs. More CIOs are being included on management committees. In a recent survey of executives at capital market firms, 89% believed that technology managers would assume greater responsibilities.

12 Course Introduction IT – Introduction to information technology –Computer hardware, software –Computer network IS – Introduction to information systems –Information system components –Types of information systems PC – personal computing –Problem solving techniques expression, problem solving using functions, decision, etc. spreadsheet design –Introduction to database –Internet techniques Creating web pages

13 What is Information Technology? A term used to refer to a wide variety of items and abilities used in the creation, storage, and dispersal of data and information. –Data: Raw facts, figures, and details. –Information: An organized, meaningful, and useful interpretation of data. Its three main components are computers, communications networks, and know-how.

14 Computers An electronic system that can be instructed to accept, process, store, and present data and information. –Input function –Processing function –Output function –Storage function

15 We use computer to Process data –Numerical data Calculation –Text data Ex. Name, address, title, etc. word processing, key word search, sorting. –Multimedia data Graphics, video/audio data

16 We use computer to Support business operations Gather information –Information about business performance Ex. How many cars sold in July? –Other information. Improve communication –Email, electronic bulletin, computer conference –Chat, Weblog, Instant Messenger –Internal, and inter-organizational

17 Hardware Input devices CPU and primary storage –RAM - temporary (volatile) storage –Processor Control Unit - decoder Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU) –Machine cycle: fetch instruction decode instruction execute instruction place results in memory

18 Hardware Output devices Secondary storage Communication devices

19 Hardware Microcomputers –Desktop, notebook, Tablet, PDA, Palm –personal computing, workstation,network server. Minicomputers –Departmental and workgroup systems, network server, workstation. Mainframes –Enterprisewide systems, transaction processors –E-Server Supercomputers –Scientific calculation Networked computer systems

20 Local Area Network Peer-to-peer network: –no dedicated server –allow file sharing with password protection Client/Server network –at least one computer as dedicated server –improved security, performance –Network Operating System (NOS) Downsizing: replacing mainframes by networked micro/minicomputers. Upsizing: replacing PC based systems by networked micro/minicomputers. Distributed processing Client/Server computing

21 Personal Area Network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. BlueTooth: It is an industrial specification for wireless PANs. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras and video game consoles via a short-range radio frequency. –Nokia’s Sensor program

22 Business Are Becoming Internetworked Enterprises The internet and Internet-like networks (intranets and extranets) have become the primary information technology infrastructure that supports the business operations of many organizations. Electronic commerce: –The buying and selling, and marketing and servicing of products, services, and information over a variety of computer networks. Globalization: –Global markets, global production facilities, global partners, global competitors, global customers.

23 Hardware Trends CPU: Parallel processor systems. Two approaches of parallel processor systems: –Pieces of the problem are worked on simultaneously by two or more CPUs and the results are then combined. –Multiple CPUs are used sequentially in an arrangement called pipelining.

24 Hardware Trends Storage: –RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks): Arrays of disk drives that provides a fault tolerant capability by storing multiple copies of data on several disks. RAID hardware/RAID software, Mirroring. –Erasable optical disk. –Flash memory: non-volatile Camera, PDA Input/output: video and multimedia input/output, voice recognition and response, optical and magnetic recognition, biometric scanner.

25 Software (Program) System software –Operating system Application software –University’s registration system Application development software

26 Operating system functions –User interface –Resource management (managing hardware) –Task management (managing the accomplishment of tasks) –File management (managing data and program files) –Utilities (providing a variety of supporting services)

27 Application development software Low level language High level language –third generation –fourth generation Word processing, desktop publishing, spreadsheet, database management, graphic presentation, etc.

28 Compiler Translator: Translate the source program to machine executable code. Interpreter: Translate one command at a time. –VBScript, JavaScript

29 Object-oriented development tools –Graphical user interface –Component programming –Event-driven programming –Code generator –Examples, VisualBasic.Net

30 Portability Java: Write Once Run Anywhere Java Source Code Java Byte Code (Intermediate Code) Java Byte Code Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Executable Code

31 Microsoft’s.Net Language must compliance with Common Language Specification, CLS. Compile the language into Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) code. The MSIL code is then executed in the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which conceptually is same as the JVM, where it is translated into machine code by a compiler.

32 Know-How The capability to do something well. Information technology know-how consists of: –Familiarity with the tools of IT; including the Internet –Possession of the skills needed to use these tools –An understanding of when to use IT to solve a problem or create an opportunity

33 Information technology provides the means to rethink/recreate/reengineer conventional business processes. –Business Processes: Collections of activities, often spanning several departments, that take one or more kinds of input and create a result that is of value to a company’s customers. –Reengineering: The reshaping of business processes to remove barriers that prohibit an organization from providing better products and services and to help the organization capitalize on its strengths. IT and Business Reengineering

34 What Is an Information System? Information system is a collection of components that work together to process data and provide information to help in the operation and management of an organization.

35 Information and Business Operations Business operations are those activities that provide the goods and services of the business, and that ensure that the business makes a profit from selling its products. Manufacturing products, processing customer orders, billing customers, keeping track of inventory, purchasing raw materials, etc. Information is needed for these operations to function efficiently.

36 Customer Order Information Sales Department Sales Information Shipping Department Billing Department A/R Department Shipping Infor BillingInfor Payment

37 Information and Management Decisions A decision is a selection between several courses of action: –Penalty for bad decision Information helps reduce uncertainty: –Incomplete information Information systems improve decision-making effectiveness by providing decision makers with information related to the decisions for which they are responsible.

38 The Fundamental Roles of Information Systems Support of business operations Support of managerial decision making Support of strategic competitive advantage –Information systems that give a company a competitive advantage in the market place.

39 Benefits of Information Systems Increased productivity –Output/Input –Reduce cost Improved service –ATM, Online system Better information

40 Components of an Information System Information technology people Database Procedure

41 People Information specialists –programmer, system analyst, database administrator, etc. End-user: –Menu-level end users –Command-level end users –End-user programmer End-user computing

42 What Stimulated End-User Computing? An increase in computing literacy The information services backlog Low-cost hardware –Power/Price ratio –Ex. MB/$ User-friendly software

43 Traditional Communications Chain Database Administrator User Systems Analyst Programmer Operator Computer Network Specialist

44 IS and EUC The End-User Computing Communication Chain User Computer Information Specialists Support Communication

45 Office Ethics Confusion Technology Is Changing the Rules of Conduct on the Job

46 Do you think it is wrong to Copy company’s software for use at home? 35 % say no. Use company equipment like computers to search for a new job? 34% say no. Blame your own personal errors on technological glitches? 39% say no. Use office computers to do personal shopping on the Internet? 46% say no.

47 Workplace PCs May Not Be Very Private Don’t be fooled: It may be personal, but it is not private. Cyber-surveillance: The person most likely to be spying on you is your boss. 27% of businesses surveyed by the American Management Association said they review employee email. Reasons: –Productivity –Liability –Network performance

48 Database A group of related files –Support business operations –Provide information Most of business applications are database applications.

49 An example of database application LuckyMarket presents another great way to save with your LuckyMarket Rewards Card! You can get up to 4 FREE movie tickets! From Feb. 01 through June 9, 2007, use your LuckyMarket Rewards Card every time you shop at Lucky. When you accumulate between $250 - $399.99 in groceries during the qualifying period, you get 2 FREE movie tickets! And if you purchase $400 or more during the same period you get 4 FREE movie tickets!

50 Major Functions of Database Management Creating a database –Analysis: Entity-Relationship Diagram –Design: Design file structure –Implementation Accessing a database Updating a database

51 Database Security Logical protection: –Illegal access –Illegal update –Virus Physical protection

52 Internet firms flocks to store data in blast-proof bunker Some biggest companies are running their Internet operations on systems installed in a 300-foot-deep nuclear blast-proof bunker.

53 Procedures Procedure: A step-by-step process or a set of instructions for accomplishing specific results. –Operations –Backup and Recovery –Security –Development

54 Operations Procedure: A procedure that describes how a computer system or application is used, how often it can be used, who is authorized to use it, and where the results of processing should go. Backup Procedure: A procedure that describes how and when to make extra copies of information or software to protect against losses. Recovery Procedure: An action taken when information or software must be restored. Security Procedure: A procedure designed to safeguard data centers, communications networks, computers, and other IT components from accidental intrusion or intentional damage. Development Procedure: A procedure that explains how IT professionals should describe user needs and develop applications to meet those needs.

55 Types of Information Systems Operations Support Systems –Transaction processing systems –Office automation systems Management Support Systems –Management information systems –Decision support systems –Executive support systems

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