Presentation on theme: "Materials and methods This study was developed by means of literature and use of data of land and research institutions in Brazil. Results The Brazilian."— Presentation transcript:
Materials and methods This study was developed by means of literature and use of data of land and research institutions in Brazil. Results The Brazilian agrarian question is yet to be solved and is still a major hindrance to the country’s development (Table 1). The violence in land conflicts in the first decade of the 21st reveal that, between 2002 and 2010, there were more than 5 million individuals involved in a total of 13 thousand episodes of land conflict, resulting in an average of 1,448 cases per year (Reydon, 2011b:7). Balance sheet data released by the CPT in 2010, show that, due to the many conflicts in Amazônia, the states of Amazonas, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, leads the Brazilian ranking in death threats by land issues. Table 1. Some numbers on the rural conflicts in Brasil, 2002-2010 One of the reasons for the high occurrences of land conflicts is the historic and high concentration of land ownership. According to Reydon (2011b), Brazil is one of the countries with the highest concentration of the world's land, where the share of the total area of the 50% lower agricultural establishments remains at 2.3% range, while the 5% higher establishments account for more than 69.3% of the total land. Another problem created by the lack of land governance is the intense deforestation in the Amazon. Conclusions The fragility of property rights is considered by a vast literature a crucial obstacle to economic development. There is unanimous in stating that the existence of security of property rights plays a crucial role in increased economic efficiency of land use, in addition to ensuring political and social stability, reducing conflicts over land. The need to improve land governance in the Brazilian case shows a well-defined institutional cool box / and a process of participatory identification and consolidation of private and public property (vacant land) be necessary. Brazilian institutions and legislation for these purposes were subject to numerous laws and different rules over time, which besides allowing the constant seizure of public land (vacant) holds masses of people in precarious access to land (squatters) and creates uncertainty in the property system. 1.SOUZA, Elyson Ferreira de (email@example.com); 1. SOUZA, Gisele Elaine de Araújo Batista (firstname.lastname@example.org); 2. LOIOLA, Tiago de Oliveira (email@example.com); 2. SOUZA, Elly Cristina Ferreira de (firstname.lastname@example.org); 3. BEZERRA, Francisco Diétima da Silva (email@example.com)firstname.lastname@example.org@email@example.com@ac.gov.br 1. PhD student in Applied Economics (IE / UNICAMP). 2. Research 3. Master's degree in Regional Development (MDR/ UFAC) A Study of Reasons for Dispute Lands in the Brazilian Amazon Introduction Historically, agrarian conflicts contrasting realities of unequal populations of poor and landless families, on the one hand, and a small number of large landowners concentrating large tracts of land on the other. The origin of the conflict is that most of the lands of the Amazon by mid-1960 belonged to the Union and the States argument. These "free land" were occupied mostly by small landholders in them settled and began to produce for subsistence. During the 1960s and 1970s state projects to occupy the Amazon seeking to attract national and international capital to the region, by offering numerous tax advantages to entrepreneurs and business groups who were willing to invest in ventures in the region began to be developed, the main activities were cattle, logging and mining, activities that require large amounts of land and generate few jobs. Many of these businesses have not invested in creating new businesses in the region, only bother to incorporate land into the equity in the future could yield with real estate speculation. Studies on the land market contained in REYDON (1992) and REYDON & CORNELIUS (2006) state exhaustively the more conventional forms of gains from economic agents with the land, especially in the case of Amazon, were the fiscal incentives, political of subsidized credit and speculation. Thus the speculative movement was historically regarded as the one that had higher profitability and economic benefits to the owners of land. These questions raise the debate on the urgent need for the deployment of tools that promote land regulation. Acknowledgements: Pro-Amazon Program / CAPES, Pro-Integration Program / CAPES / Ministry of Integration, Foundation for Research Support of Acre (FAPAC / CAPES).. Literature cited DEININGER, Klaus. Land policies for growth and poverty reduction. A World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington: World Bank e Oxford University Press, 2003. p. 17-46. REYDON, Bastiaan Philip. O desmatamento da floresta amazônica: causas e soluções. Economia Verde: desafios e oportunidades. Jun. 2011a, n. 8, p. 143 – 155. Reydon, Bastiaan Philip. The Brazilian agrarian question requires solution in the XXI century. In: TEIXEIRA, Erly Cardoso, et al (Eds.). The Land and Transportation Infrastructure Issues for Agribusiness. Lush, Federal University of Viçosa, 2011b. p. 3-48..Year Num. of conflicts Num. of persons involved Conflicts in area (hectares) Num. of murders Num. of murder attempts Num. of death threats Num. of persons arrested 2002925425.7803.066.4364336244158 20031690112.72053.831.4057364266380 20041801965.7105.069.3993999284421 20051881803.85011.487.0723856266261 20061657703.2505.051.3483972207917 20071538612.0008.420.0832866259428 20081170354.2256.568.755284490168 20091184415.29015.116.5902562143204 20101186315.93513.312.343345512588 Source: Pastoral Land Commission (CPT) in REYDON, 2011b, adapted.