Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 – Atlantic South America Section Notes Physical Geography Brazil Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay Video Impact of Deforestation in the Amazon."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 – Atlantic South America Section Notes Physical Geography Brazil Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay Video Impact of Deforestation in the Amazon Basin Images Geography Focus on Culture: Soccer in Brazil Buenos Aires Brazil’s Urban and Rural Population Quick Facts Chapter 9 Visual Summary Maps Atlantic South America: Political Atlantic South America: Physical Argentina: Population Paraguay and Uruguay Atlantic South America Close-up The Amazon Rain Forest World Almanac Argentina’s Largest Cities
Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography of Atlantic South America includes large river systems, plains and plateaus, and the Amazon rain forest. Main Ideas Physical features of Atlantic South America include large rivers, plateaus, and plains. Climate and vegetation in the region ranges from cool, dry plains to warm, humid forests. The rain forest is a major source of natural resources.
Main Idea 1: Physical features of Atlantic South America include large rivers, plateaus, and plains. Atlantic South America includes Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. This region covers two-thirds of South America. Brazil occupies almost half of the continent.
Major River Systems Amazon River World’s largest river system Flows eastward across northern Brazil through Peru to Atlantic Ocean 4,000 miles long Carries more water than any other river: 20 percent of Earth’s surface water Lowers the salt level of the Atlantic Ocean for more than 100 miles Río de la Plata Paraná River flows into Río de la Plata and the Atlantic Ocean. Paraná River drains central part of South America. Río de la Plata is an estuary, or a partially enclosed body of water where freshwater mixes with salty sea water.
Plains and Plateaus The land of South America is mostly plains and plateaus. The Amazon Basin in northern Brazil is a giant floodplain. The Brazilian Highlands are rugged, old, eroded mountains and a high plain area called the Mato Grosso Plateau. Farther south are the low plains known as Gran Chaco. Argentina is home to the wide, grassy plains of the Pampas and the dry plains and plateaus of Patagonia. All these plains rise in the west to form the high Andes Mountains.
Main Idea 2: Climate and vegetation in the region ranges from cool, dry plains to warm, humid forests. Patagonia has a cool, desert climate. Rich soils in humid subtropical Pampas are good for farming. In Gran Chaco, summer rains can turn these humid, tropical plains into marshlands. General Climate Cool climates in southern and highland areas Tropical climates in the northern and coastal areas Argentina Central region is tropical savanna climate with grasslands. Amazon Basin’s tropical climate in northern Brazil supports the world’s largest rain forest. Brazil
Main Idea 3: The rain forest is a major source of natural resources. Amazon rain forest provides food, wood, rubber, plants for medicines, and other products. Deforestation, or the clearing of trees, has become a problem. Near coastal areas, the land supports commercial farming. Planting the same crop every year has caused soil exhaustion, which means the soil is infertile because it has lost nutrients needed by plants. Other resources: gold, silver, copper, iron, and oil Dams provide hydroelectric power.
Brazil The Big Idea The influence of Brazil’s history can be seen all over the country in its people and culture. Main Ideas Brazil’s history has been affected by Brazilian Indians, Portuguese settlers, and enslaved Africans. Brazil’s society reflects a mix of people and cultures. Brazil today is experiencing population growth in its cities and new development in rain forest areas.
Main Idea 1: Brazil’s history has been affected by Brazilian Indians, Portuguese settlers, and enslaved Africans. Colonial Brazil First people: American Indians arrived many thousands of years ago and hunted, fished, and farmed. 1500: Portuguese explorers arrived. Colonists brought in Africans to work as slaves on sugar plantations. Colonists established cattle ranches inland. In late 1600s and early 1700s: People discovered gold and gems. Late 1800s: Brazil began producing coffee. Since Independence 1822: Brazil won independence from Portugal without war. Economy did not change and slavery continued. Brazil has been ruled by dictators and elected officials. Today, Brazil has an elected president and legislature. Brazil is the largest country in South America. It has 186 million people—more than all the other countries combined.
Main Idea 2: Brazil’s society reflects a mix of people and cultures. More than half of people are descended from Portugal, Spain, Germany, Italy, or Poland. Nearly 40 percent are of mixed African and European descent. Brazil has the largest Japanese population outside Japan. Official language: Portuguese. Others speak Spanish, English, French, Japanese, or native languages.
Brazilians celebrate Carnival before Lent. Carnival mixes African, native, and European traditions. E.g., the samba adapted from Africa Cultural mix can be found in foods: vatapá, an African seafood dish, and feijoada, a black bean and meat stew. Religion About 70 percent are Roman Catholic. Protestantism is growing in popularity among urban poor. Some practice macumba, a religion that combines African, Brazilian, Indian, and Christian beliefs and practices. Festivals and Food Brazil
Main Idea 3: Brazil today is experiencing population growth in its cities and new development in rain forest areas. The Southeast Most people live in the southeast. São Paulo, –Largest urban center in South America; 5 th largest in the world –A megacity, a giant urban area that includes surrounding cities and suburbs Rio de Janeiro –Second largest city in Brazil –Capital from Richest region: industries and good farmland Poor people come to the cities for work. They live in huge slums called favelas.
The Northeast Brazil’s poorest region Illiteracy and health care are a problem. Droughts make farming and raising livestock difficult. Region’s beautiful beaches attract tourists. Old colonial cities also attract tourists. These were built during the days of the sugar industry. They feature brightly painted buildings, cobblestone streets, and churches.
The Interior The interior is a frontier. Mild climate and land may make it good for farming in the future. Brasilia, Brazil’s capital –More than 2 million people –Built to help develop interior –Modern buildings and busy highways The Amazon Manaus –Major port and industrial city –More than 1 million people Indian villages are scattered throughout the rain forest. Indians had little contact with outsiders until recently. Logging, mining, and new roads are bringing more people. This development brings income, but destroys the rain forest. The Interior and the Amazon
Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay The Big Idea Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay have been influenced by European immigration, a tradition of ranching, and large urban populations. Main Ideas European immigrants have dominated the history and culture of Argentina. Argentina’s capital, Buenos Aires, plays a large role in the country’s government and economy today. Uruguay has been influenced by its neighbors. Paraguay is the most rural country in the region.
Main Idea 1: European immigrants have dominated the history and culture of Argentina. Indians hunted in the Pampas and further north built irrigation systems for farming. Few native people remain. 1500s: Spanish came to Argentina to find silver and gold. Spanish monarch granted land to colonists, who forced Indians to work in their settlements. Gauchos, Argentine cowboys, herded cattle and horses on the open grasslands of the Pampas. 1800s: Argentina gained independence, but violence and instability killed or drove away the Indians.
Modern Argentina New immigrants arrived from Italy, Germany, and Spain. British helped build railroads that made it easier to transport agricultural products such as beef for export. 1900s: Argentina was rich, but struggled under dictators and military governments. Leaders like Eva Perón were popular, but many abused human rights. 1970s: During the “Dirty War,” the government tortured and killed people believed to disagree with the government. 1980s: Argentina’s last military government
People and Culture Most of Argentina’s 39 million people are descended from European settlers. Argentine Indians and mestizos make up 3 percent of the population. Most people are Roman Catholic. Beef, a major agricultural export, is also part of the culture.
Main Idea 2: Argentina’s capital, Buenos Aires, plays a large role in the country’s government and economy today. Buenos Aires Capital Second largest urban area in South America Home to most of Argentina’s industry Its location near coast and Pampas has contributed to its economic development. Pampas Most developed agricultural region About 11 percent of labor force works in agriculture. Exports: beef, wheat, and corn
Economy and Government Policies 1990s: Government made reforms to help businesses grow. Argentina joined Mercosur, an organization that promotes trade and economic cooperation among the southern and eastern countries of South America. Late 1900s/early 2000s: Heavy debt and government spending brought on economic crisis. 2001: Political crisis results. Government changed hands four times. 2003: Economy stabilized, but professionals had lost jobs and joined the informal economy, a part of the economy based on odd jobs that people perform without government regulation through taxes.
Main Idea 3: Uruguay has been influenced by its neighbors. History Its capital, Montevideo, close to Buenos Aires Portugal conquered Uruguay, but Spain took over in 1770s. Few Uruguayan Indians remained. 1825: Independence Military governments have ruled off and on. Today it is a democracy. People Most are descended from Europeans. About 12 percent mestizo, Indians, or African Mostly Roman- Catholic, Spanish- speaking More than 90 percent live in urban areas. High literacy rate and many good jobs Economy More than half of Uruguay’s trade is with Brazil and Argentina. Exports beef grown on inland plains Some limited industry Few mineral resources Hydroelectric power is a main source of energy.
Main Idea 4: Paraguay is the most rural country in the region. History Paraguay is landlocked, or surrounded by land with no direct access to the ocean. Paraguay River divides country into eastern farmland and western ranches. Mid-1530s: Spanish claimed country. 1811: Independence Today it is a democracy. People About 95 percent are mestizos. Rest are Indians or people of European descent. Two official languages: Spanish and Guarani, an Indian language Most people are Roman Catholic. Asunción is capital and largest city. Economy Wealth and government controlled by a few rich families. Nearly half of the country’s workers are farmers. Many farmers grow just enough to feed themselves. Small businesses, but not much industry Promising resources like hydroelectricity