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Cloud Computing. Definition “Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable.

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Presentation on theme: "Cloud Computing. Definition “Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cloud Computing

2 Definition “Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability.”

3 What is cloud computing? I don’t understand what we would do differently in the light of Cloud Computing other than change the wordings of some of our ads Larry Ellision, Oracle’s CEO I have not heard two people say the same thing about it [cloud]. There are multiple definitions out there of “the cloud” Andy Isherwood, HP’s Vice President of European Software Sales It’s stupidity. It’s worse than stupidity: it’s a marketing hype campaign. Richard Stallman, Free Software Foundation founder 3

4 Business attributes Access resources from cloud of available computing resources  Is always available and scales automatically to meet demand  Is pay per use: Based on resources consumed  Enables full customer self-service  Note: Can be provided by 3 rd party (e.g. Amazon) or on own network for v. large organisations (a.k.a private cloud) Acquire resources on demand  Release resources when no longer needed  Turns capital investment/fixed cost into operating costs/variable costs  Reduced cost – take advantage of economies of scale across users of cloud

5 Technology attributes Access computing resources via Internet protocols from any computer  Reduced system administration overhead: automated provisioning  Increased/matched reliability and security Acquire resources on demand  Increased utilisation through sharing of resources through virtualisation or multi-tenancy  To minimise the cost to the provider, clouds rely on a large number of ‘commodity’ processors. These are cheaper to purchase and consumer less power per unit of processing when compared to high power processors  No longer design deployment environment to meet maximum load

6 The NIST Cloud Definition Framework 6 CommunityCloud Private Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Clouds Deployment Models Service Models Essential Characteristics Common Characteristics Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Resource Pooling Broad Network AccessRapid Elasticity Measured Service On Demand Self-Service Low Cost Software VirtualizationService Orientation Advanced Security Homogeneity Massive ScaleResilient Computing Geographic Distribution Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor -

7 OS Virtualisation leads directly to resilient computing, rapid elasticity and advanced security In case of VM based cloud, facilitates measured service as hypervisor tracks usage Multi-tenancy provides rapid elasticity The NIST Cloud Definition Framework 7 Essential Characteristics Common Characteristics Resource Pooling Broad Network AccessRapid Elasticity Measured Service On Demand Self-Service Low Cost Software VirtualizationService Orientation Advanced Security Homogeneity Massive ScaleResilient Computing Geographic Distribution Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor -

8 A number of other attributes rely on the scale of investment undertaken by cloud providers Early cloud promoters (e.g. Amazon & Google) had to build massive scale for their main businesses Use of open source software and commodity hardware reduces overall cost to cloud provider The NIST Cloud Definition Framework 8 Essential Characteristics Common Characteristics Resource Pooling Broad Network AccessRapid Elasticity Measured Service On Demand Self-Service Low Cost Software VirtualizationService Orientation Advanced Security Homogeneity Massive ScaleResilient Computing Geographic Distribution Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor -

9 9 4 Cloud Deployment Models Private cloud Cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise Typically only large organisations Public cloud Cloud infrastructure is made available to the 3 rd parties but is owned by an organization selling cloud services Cloud services designed to be ‘generic’ and suitable to all customers E.g. Amazon, Google, Microsoft, BM etc

10 10 4 Cloud Deployment Models Community cloud Cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations) May be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise Hybrid cloud composition of two or more clouds that remain unique and separate entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability Cloud bursting is the term used to describe the process where an organisation extend from a private to public cloud

11 Client access architecture Client access via browser of Web Services Independent of type of cloud computing 11 Server OS Database App Server Storage Network App 1 Clients Access via Browser Or web-service (SOAP or REST) Network App 1 Or Storage VM App server DB OS Platform

12 Service model architecture Four main service model architectures Datastore as a service is not always included although currently the most popular use of cloud Significant differences in the technical and commercial architectures 12 Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) Platform As A Service (PaaS) Software As A Service (SaaS) Datastore as a service

13 Service model architecture: Datastorage as a servce Functional: Data storage interfaces can be used by any of the other types or accessed directly Examples of direct usage: Amazon’s really simple storage Commercial: Charged on basis of amount of storage used 13 Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) Platform As A Service (PaaS) Software As A Service (SaaS) Datastore as a service

14 Characteristics of cloud datastore Cloud based datastore is massively distributed and scalable Utilises large number of commodity servers (a.k.a. nodes) This implies that the chance of system failure across a large number of nodes is high Therefore, cloud datastore must cope with node failure Cloud datastores are typically non-relational Distribution across a large number of nodes not a good fit to the relational model of databases. Relational databases support “joins” which are hard to implement in a massively distributed way To address requirement for relational database capabilities Either provide relational interfaces to non-relational infrastructure Allow relational databases to run on a small number of nodes as part of the virtualisation 14

15 Characteristics of cloud datastore Cloud datastores are optimised for large scale data search E.g. Google’s MapReduce (and hadoop – an open source implementation) which divide the processing into multiple blocks (Map) and then process each block on one or more nodes (reduce) Cloud datastores are also appropriate to business intelligence applications which require ‘column’ based processing E.g. Summing sales in a particular region In contrast, relational databases are efficient for record/row level read/write 15

16 Service model architecture: IaaS Functional: Virtual server instances available for provisioning Examples: Amazon’s EC2, Commercial: Charged on basis of number /scale of instances as well as usage profile 16 Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) Platform As A Service (PaaS) Software As A Service (SaaS) Datastore as a service

17 Example: Amazon EC2 Amazon provides a range of general purpose support services accessible via VMs Examples of these services include Simple Queue Service: Limited messaging system for communications between VMs S3: Cloud storage service 17

18 Example: Amazon EC2 Other examples of these services (cont) SimpleDB: Non-relational database Elastic MapReduce: large scale search and text processing infrastructure Flexible payment service: enabling website payments Mechanical Turk: outsourcing marketplace 18

19 Amazon EC2 options and pricing Aws.amazon.com/ec2 19

20 Service model architecture: PaaS Functional: Application development and deployment environment Provides programming APIs as well as underlying infrastructure Commercial: Metering and billing based on application usage – typically CPU consumption/datastore consumption 20 Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) Platform As A Service (PaaS) Software As A Service (SaaS) Datastore as a service

21 Example: Google AppEngine Platform uses multiple tenancy on the single infrastructure Benefit of charging only on usage and not on number of instance (as with IaaS) Provides general purpose support services Includes infrastructure services such as database Also includes application level interfaces such as video conferencing Provides both server and client side APIs to develop Google AppEngine applications Provides a platform which is proprietary 21

22 22 Example: Microsoft Azure Services Access to the Microsoft platform as a cloud based platform Provides a platform which is proprietary Source: Microsoft Presentation, A Lap Around Windows Azure, Manuvir Das

23 Service model architecture: SaaS Functional: End user interaction with the Application’s function Allows for customisation of UI and workflows Often uses mult-tenancy databases Commercial: typically billing based on number of users 23 Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) Platform As A Service (PaaS) Software As A Service (SaaS) Datastore as a service

24 Example: Salesforce.com Provides complete application accessible from the cloud Infrastructure is hidden from the user Software can be configured to support customer specific requirements Supports customisation through configuration driven language Scope for customisation is limited Uses multi-tenancy architecture Essential a platform for a specific class of application Configuration results in a change to both UI and underlying database schema for that customer 24

25 Examples of configuration UI actions (such as entering an address) can have customised scripts associated with them which perform workflow or validation logic Workflow defines the sequence of steps through the UI screens Validation logic enforces rules about information entered based on customer specific standards or context specific restraints (i.e. What can be entered given the current workflow) These may not effect the database schema definition and therefore can be deployed only to that customers UI 25

26 Examples of configuration UI definitions (or associated workflows) may also require modifications/extensions to the database schema Through multi-tenancy/multi-schema approach, the metadata defining the schemas specific to that customer is modified without impacting on the ‘base’schema or the other customers’ deployed schemas 26

27 27 Different types of SaaS Type 1: Ad-Hoc/Custom Type 2: Configurable Type 3: Configurable, Multi- Tenant-Efficient Type 4: Scalable, Configurable, Multi-Tenant- Efficient 27 Source: Microsoft MSDN Architecture Center

28 28 Different types of SaaS Type 1: Ad-Hoc/Custom Each customer (or tenant) has there own instance of the application which can be customised on an individual basis Level 1 SaaS is equivalent to application hosting 28

29 29 Different types of SaaS Type 2: Configurable A single application base is customised for each customer/tenant Customisation is deployed within each instance of the application Deployment of upgrades across the instance will require roll-out to each instance 29

30 30 Different types of SaaS Type 3: Configurable, Multi- Tenant-Efficient A single application base and instance is customised for each customer/tenant Customisation is deployed at run- time within each instance of the application Single instance is more resource efficient than multiple instances Deployment of upgrades made to a single instance 30

31 31 Different types of SaaS Type 4: Scalable, Configurable, Multi-Tenant- Efficient Uses a tenant load balancer to balance load between multiple instances Similar to a hypervisor Should provide superior scalability and efficiency Requires deployment of upgrades to made to multiple instances 31

32 Conclusions: Understanding the different service model architectures Different levels of abstraction OS: Amazon EC2 Application development framework : Google AppEngine Applicaton customisation: Salesforce Similar to languages Higher level abstractions can be built on top of lower ones EC2AzureAppEngine Lower-level, More flexibility, More management Scalability through configuration Higher-level, Less flexibility, Less management Automatically scalable 32 Salesforce.com IAASPAASSAAS

33 Cloud and security 33

34 34 General Security Challenges Security/data control is the most often cited issue with migration to the cloud Issues include: Trusting vendor’s security model Customer inability to respond to audit findings (dependent on service provider to modify service) Obtaining support for investigations Indirect administrator accountability Proprietary implementations can’t be examined Loss of physical control

35 35 Cloud Security Challenges Part 1 Data dispersal and international privacy laws EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor program Exposure of data to foreign government and data subpoenas Data retention issues Mostly addressed by cloud vendor providing geographic specific services Clear data ownership Quality of service guarantees Reliability of cloud service providers’ service in the context of enterprise level quality of service commitments (typically with required recovery times in seconds or minutes) Potential for massive outages

36 36 Cloud Security Challenges Part 2 Dependence on secure hypervisors (for IaaS) or Multi- tenancy (in both PaaS and SaaS) Attraction to hackers (high value target) Security of virtual OSs in the cloud Encryption needs for cloud computing Encrypting access to the cloud resource control interface Encrypting administrative access to OS instances Encrypting access to applications Encrypting application data at rest Lack of public PaaS/SaaS version control Changes to the service may occur with out explicit agreement from the customer – unlike tightly controlled lifecycle management within an enterprise


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