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Connecting People With Information Service Orientation For further information OSD at: Version 08.4 DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy.

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Presentation on theme: "Connecting People With Information Service Orientation For further information OSD at: Version 08.4 DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Connecting People With Information Service Orientation For further information OSD at: Version 08.4 DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy (DS) and Community of Interest (COI) Training

2 2 Purpose/Outline Purpose: To provide context for the importance of services in the DoD’s Net-Centric Strategies, e.g., –Demonstrate how data (via services) can be combined in innovative ways to create new value-added capabilities Outline –Definition of Terms –Examples of Services –Service Oriented Architecture –Motivators for Adoption –Identifying Potential Services for a Pilot –Example “Mashups”

3 3 What is a Service? Service: “A mechanism to enable access to one or more capabilities, where the access is provided using a prescribed interface and is exercised consistent with constraints and policies as specified by the service description.” DoD Net-Centric Services Strategy May 2007 Corollary: A capability may be realized through the execution of one or more services Characteristics of services –Modular (able to be composed, much like building blocks) –Network-accessible –Reusable –Standards-based –Distributed capabilities

4 4 Who is Using Services? By show of hands… Banking –How many of you pay bills online? Directions –Who uses MapQuest or Google Maps for directions? Travel –Who uses Travelocity, Priceline, or KAYAK? Many of us are using software services everyday

5 5 Case Study: Online Banking Online banking, Quicken, Microsoft Money –Ability to view multiple accounts, pay bills, and transfer funds from a variety of applications and interfaces –Open Financial Exchange (OFX) –  Specification for the electronic exchange of financial data between financial institutions, business and consumers via the internet  Specification created by CheckFree, Intuit, and Microsoft in early 1997  As of May 2006, OFX supported by over 3500 banks and brokerages  Leverages open standards: XML, TCP/IP, HTTP, and SSL Revolutionized existing business processes. Banks have become more virtualized Here is a real world example of a COI in action… A net-centric information sharing approach led to a revolution in the way people and organizations do their banking services + open standards + community specification + over 3500 adopters = TRANSFORMATION! Here is a real world example of a COI in action… A net-centric information sharing approach led to a revolution in the way people and organizations do their banking services + open standards + community specification + over 3500 adopters = TRANSFORMATION!

6 6 Case Study: Amazon.com Amazon E-Commerce Service (ECS) exposes Amazon's product data and e-commerce functionality –Allows developers, web site owners and merchants to leverage the data and functionality that Amazon uses to power its own e-commerce business With ECS, developers can add rich content and powerful capabilities to Web sites and applications by using the following features: –Detailed Product and Pricing Information on Amazon.com –Access to Amazon.com Product Images –All Customer Reviews associated with a Product –Access to Amazon.com’s “Advanced Search” –Remote Shopping Cart –Amazon Wish List Search Amazon Associates Program –Amazon.com's affiliate marketing program –Associates drive internet traffic to Amazon.com via services that allow Amazon to track sales and other activity –Associates earn up to 10% in referral fees on all qualifying revenue made through their links

7 7 Case Study: Amazon.com (example usage) Using Amazon E-Commerce Service…. ScanLife provides a convenient mobile shopping technology that enables customers to check Amazon.com prices instantly on their cell phone.ScanL

8 8 Case Study: PayPal eCommerce business that allows payments and money transfers to be made over the Internet –Performs payment processing for online vendors, auction sites, and other corporate users PayPal provides service interfaces for processing credit card payments, sending money, receiving money, refunding transactions, searching transaction histories, etc PayPal is an example of a machine-to-machine service

9 9 What is a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)? An architectural style –NOT a product –NOT a bunch of web services An architecture based on flexibly linked software components that leverage web standards and services Formal Definition*: Service Oriented Architecture is a paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains * Taken from OASIS Reference Model for Service Oriented Architecture 1.0

10 10 Why an SOA? Results in an explosion of capabilities for our warfighters and decision makers Provides more agility Provides the building blocks for a net-centric information sharing environment

11 11 Drives Enables Process for Developing Services Data Needed Service Implementations START HERE START HERE START HERE Enables Community Information Exchange Vocabulary Capability Delivery Drives Info Sharing Need Drives Service Needed

12 12 Identifying Potential Services for a Pilot Identify information sharing needs Analyze business processes – current & desired –Identify processes for service insertion –Bias toward creating enterprise services Questions to consider –What business services do you provide now? –What business services will you provide in the future? –What data do people ask you for most? –What are your organization’s core competencies? –Where does your organization overlap with other efforts?  Potentially identifies a common service

13 13 Identifying Potential Services Source: modified from original in DOD Net-Centric Services Strategy (DRAFT, May 2007); page 2 Request ammunitionGet Inventory CountPlace Order Check ammunition status Place and confirm order with supplier Munitions run low. Request supply Is it in stock elsewhere? Depot Services Business Process: Munitions supply Services align with business processes

14 14 Identifying Potential Services Consider Blue Force Tracking (BFT) Despite advances, stovepipes still exist; fratricide still occurs By publishing Blue Force positions authorized users can subscribe and identify friendly positions Authoritative Sources Ad P D AMPS D Service Adapter(*) Service Adapter FBCB2 Guard Service Adapter(*) WEB Federated DDS Nodes Consumers Web Services Info Grid Advertise Publish Subscribe Deliver Web Services Info Grid Advertise Publish Subscribe Deliver Ad P S D S S P D CPOF/MCS Service Adapter C2PC Service Adapter DDS USMC Service Adapter USN Service Adapter USA Service Adapter USAF Service Adapter Multi-National Service Adapter D

15 15 Example “Mashups” Mashups are an example of an aggregation service We have provided an overview of SOA and the motivation for its adoption We have discussed how you might identify potential services for a pilot We will now consider a few example internet “mashups” Mashups illustrate the types of new, innovative services that can be developed when data is visible, accessible, and understandable over the web

16 16 Mashups “A mashup is a website or application that combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience.” – Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid) has a list of over 3,000 mashups from various sourceshttp://www.programmableweb.com/ The following slides present some examples of different mashups Mashups assume the visibility, accessibility, and understandability of data and services

17 17 Examples –Maintains a listing of different mashups –Demonstrates how disparate RSS feeds can be graphically joined together to produce new and innovative RSS services –Demonstrates discovery of portlets that provide customizable views for end users –Estimates home valuations using publicly available information such as comparables and tax information; overlays estimates on top of each house on a map Crime mashups (e.g. )http://chicagocrime.orghttp://crimeinDC.org –Display crime incidents within a localized region over a period of time –Aggregates registered sex offender information from state databases and overlays residence locations onto Google Maps –The weather forecast component is from NOAA's Experimental National Digital Forecast Database XML Web Service and the map component is from Google Maps –Displays flight locations on top of Google Maps for several US airports –Locates wifi hotspots around the world quickly and easily by consulting a very large database of wifi hotspots and integrating that data with Google Maps https://caernarfon.spawar.navy.mil/mdads/ –CAC required –Displays data from Automatic Identification System (AIS) aggregation centers (USCG, Navy, Office of Naval Intelligence, and Dept of Transportation) onto Google Earth or Google Maps. Found many of these with a simple five minute search on Found many of these with a simple five minute search on

18 18 Demonstrates how disparate RSS feeds can be graphically joined together to produce new and innovative RSS services

19 19 Zillow (http://www.zillow.com)http://www.zillow.com Estimates home valuations using publicly available information such as comparables and tax information and overlays estimates on top of each house on a map

20 20 Crime Mashups (e.g. Display crime incidents within a localized region over a period of time

21 21 GlobalIncidentMap.com Ability to sort by type of incident, date, location, etc. Listing of bomb-related events between 14 Feb 08 and 15 Feb 08 Worldwide threats and incidents: airport, chemical, bridge, railway, bombs, etc. It also has links to related news stories and a searchable database.

22 22 Portable Flight Planning Software (PFPS) Google Earth Tool A free conversion utility that interfaces between US military PFPS software and Google Earth Privately developed by Capt Mark Jacobsen –C-17 pilot with 10 th Airlift Squadron He was inspired to write the software while on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) deployment –Squadron used Google Earth for visualization of airdrops in Afghanistan Users can use the utility to create and edit waypoints, threats, and different kinds of airspace Allows pilots to quickly and easily visualize their flight-plan routes in Google Earth. Other uses: airspace management, threat plotting and avoidance, and target/drop zone visualization

23 23 This is a Google Earth screenshot, showing the capabilities of PFPS Google Earth Tool. It shows several types of objects that the user can create. Flight Corridor Flight route Cylindrical airspace volumes to encompass local airfields Restricted Areas

24 24 Maritime Domain Awareness Data Sharing Community of Interest (https://mda.spawar.navy.mil/)https://mda.spawar.navy.mil/ Displays Automatic Identification System (AIS) data from US Coast Guard, Navy, and Dept of Transportation onto Google Earth

25 25 Summary Making your data visible, accessible, and understandable via services enables mashups, aggregation and innovative value-added capabilities –Without going through JCIDS, PPBE and large acquisitions! –Without a $100M contract! By exposing your data, you are enabling innovation –You may not even realize the impact you will have –You may enable the next great mashup Expose data. Enable innovation.

26 26 Backups

27 27 DoD Net-Centric Services Strategy Recap A strategy for a net-centric information sharing, service- oriented DoD Enterprise Four Goals: –Provide Services: Make information and functional capabilities available as services on the network –Use Services: Use existing services to satisfy mission needs before creating duplicative capabilities –Govern the Infrastructure and Services: Establish the policies and processes for the single set of common standards, rules, and shared infrastructure and services throughout the DoD Enterprise to ensure execution enables interoperability –Monitor and Manage Services via GIG NetOps: Implement services in accordance with DoD’s GIG NetOps Strategy and Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to ensure situational awareness of the net-centric information sharing environment

28 28 Process for Developing Services 1.Identify an information sharing problem 2.Check to see if a service exists to meet your need. If not… 3.Specify the services you are going to develop 4.Develop an architectural approach Determine the appropriate information interaction model Request / Response (e.g., SOAP) Publish / Subscribe (e.g., NCES Messaging Service) Notification followed by Request / Response Consider data access constraints Use Core Enterprise Services where possible/practical 5.Implement services and provide them to the enterprise Make services visible Register services in the enterprise service registry to aid discovery Make services accessible Users need to discover and access them in a timely, secure, and effective manner Use NCES core security services where possible to ensure widest possible access is supported Make services understandable NCES will provide a Service Specification Template (SST) to descibe services

29 29 Service-Oriented Architectural Design Patterns COIs can employ several different architectural approaches when providing and consuming services –Publish/Subscribe (Pub/Sub) –Request/Response –Service Brokering

30 30 M M MMM Publish/Subscribe (Pub/Sub) Architecture Publisher Consumer Bus Publish Subscribe M = Messages MM MMM

31 31 Request / Response Architecture Service Provider Service Consumer Request Response

32 32 Service Brokering Service Provider Service Consumer Request Response Service Broker Request Response

33 33 Service A Web services swapping roles during a conversation (Request/Response) Service B “Could you do this for me?” Now, I act like a client Now, I act like a server Now, I act like a client “Ok, I’ll get right on it.” “Now I need you to do something” “Yeah, alright. I’ll take care of it.” Source: Erl, Thomas. Service Oriented Architecture: A Field Guide to Integrating XML and Web Services. Page 51

34 34 Pub/Sub vs Request/Response Neither is better than the other, per se –Each has it’s own strengths and design considerations Some situations are better suited for Pub/Sub –Time sensitive data –Dynamic data that changes frequently –Large numbers of consumers –Alerts and broadcasts Other situations are better suited for Request/Response –Sensitive information –Smaller number of consumers –Data may not be as time-sensitive –Large data sets Some situations use a hybrid approach –NCES Messaging  Message bus is Pub/Sub but interfaces to the bus are currently request/response –RSS  Behaves like Pub/Sub but actually implemented with request response

35 35 Tight vs Loose Coupling Source: Krafzig, Banke, Slama. Enterprise SOA: Service-Oriented Architecture Best Practices * Note: table items in italics modified slightly from original LevelTight CouplingLoose Coupling Physical couplingDirect physical link requiredPhysical intermediary Communication StyleSynchronousAsynchronous Semantics*Interface semantics*Payload semantics* Interaction patternOO-style navigation of complex object trees Data-centric, self- contained messages Control of process logic Central control of process logic Distributed logic components Service discovery and binding Statically bound servicesDynamically bound services Pattern dependenciesStrong OS and programming language dependencies OS and programming language independent

36 36 Maintains listing of different “mashups”

37 37 Demonstrates discovery of portlets that provide customizable views for end users

38 38 Aggregates registered sex offender information from state databases and overlays residence locations onto Google Maps

39 39 Displays flight locations on top of Google Maps for several US airports

40 40 The weather forecast component is from NOAA's Experimental National Digital Forecast Database XML Web Service and the map component is from Google Maps

41 41 Locates wifi hotspots around the world quickly and easily by consulting a very large database of wifi hotspots and integrating that data with Google Maps


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