Presentation on theme: "Karina Garcia Fernandez UNAP Iquitos, Peru. Native Communities in the Amazon."— Presentation transcript:
Karina Garcia Fernandez UNAP Iquitos, Peru
Native Communities in the Amazon
Territory policies In the last 40 years, indigenous people have been organizing in federations in order to achieve the legalization of their territories. At the present time there about 50 ethnic federations grouped into regional and national organizations. In recent years the occupation of the Amazon has intensified and indigenous territories are found highly threatened by small and large scale farmers, oil and wood exploitation.
The norms and procedures for the demarcation, titling and registration of Native Communities are stablished in the Law on Native Communities and Agrarian Development (22175). Some communities have opted to voluntary isolate themselves from the national nonindigenous society and therefore do not have legally recognized lands.
Health The most common diseases are dengue and malaria. Nowadays, they are exposed to new diseases and mortal epidemics from the destruction of the environment and the invasion of their territories for petroleum, wood, gold exploration and explotation, from the pressure of ethnobotanical and linguistic-cultural researchers, from being a destiny for ecotourism, colonization, political violence, drug traffic and others.
Thus, the mortality rate is higher for their children as they are widely susceptible and outside the religious missions have little or no access to scientific medical care.
Peru sees oil but no development For the past 35 years many native communities have consumed water contaminated by nearby old fields. (Corrientes River- The Achuar people)), while governments turned a blind eye to their suffering. The water extracted with the oil has not been re-injected to the actual oil pits but has been dumped into the river, killing the fish and wildlife.
Plus petrol currently throws 1.3 mm barrels (159 litres each containing hydrocarbon particles, chlorine, mercurium, arsenic, etc). Water reaches temperatures of more than 194 degrees Farenheit.
When consumed, the substances in this metal-laden water –and food grown with it- causing a cronic breakdown of the immune system. Thus, the risk of cancer and genetic defects is higher than in the past. However, the Peruvian government says the oil and mineral companies are bringing wealth and helping development in the country, but those representing indigenous communities say they pay too heavy a price.
Hunting of wild animals and fishing. Agriculture: banana, yuca,rice, peanuts,beans, regional fruits for subsistance and trading Selling of crafts, made with seeds and natural fibers, textiles and pottery painting with natural dyes. Tourist promotion of their culture. Economic Activities
Education The Constitution highlights the State’s obligation to promote intercultural and bilingual education. (Art. 17). National Office of Bilingual Education-Dissolved in the 90’s, citing lack of funds. Reestablished due to international pressure and protests by intercultural activists. Bilingual Intercultural Education is an important focus-point for indigenous activism. Teacher training sessions are not long enough to grasp the nuances of new teaching methods.
They are not provided with the resources to put their ideas into practice. Lamentable distance between those who make policies and those who must live with the effects of those reforms.
Traditional Medicine The ‘ayahuasca healing’ made with ayahuasca root, is a ‘purification ritual’, a gateway- not for escape but for eternity. Prepared by ‘shamans’, a medium of equilibrium in the world. Herbal baths- cleansing bath for the dissipation of negative energies. Clay baths. Flower baths- flourishing bath to attract good luck, wealth and prosperity.