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Sociology 545 Seminar in Social Psychology September 7, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology 545 Seminar in Social Psychology September 7, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociology 545 Seminar in Social Psychology September 7, 2005

2 Summary and Review Both Sociology and Psychology during the early part of the 20 th century focussed on input – output models of human processes (i.e. S-R and F-S models) Both Sociology and Psychology during the early part of the 20 th century focussed on input – output models of human processes (i.e. S-R and F-S models) However, the mere reference to expectations implies a cognitive function; hence the real model is (S-P-R or F-P-S) However, the mere reference to expectations implies a cognitive function; hence the real model is (S-P-R or F-P-S)

3 Summary and Review The field of social psychology springs from separate traditions: The cognitive model in psychology and the interactionist model in sociology. While they both address cognitive mediation of social action, they differ in research traditions, psychology embracing quantitative research while sociology using a qualitative mode.

4 Summary and Review Yet both approaches agree on two fundamental ideas: –The cognitive/interpretive level of functioning is a stimulus organizing mechanism and while it appears to be a hypothetical construct, it can be measured. –That the social surroundings constituting our groups and institutional arrangements are not the cause, but the consequence, of the cognitive/interpretive process.

5 Topic for this Evening Cognition Cognition –It relationship to perception, memory and attitudes Cognitive Balance and Dissonance Cognitive Balance and Dissonance –The Balance Theory of Heider –The Dissonance Theory of Festinger Attribution Attribution –Acts, intention, disposition –Time, People and Places

6 Cognition Differs from, but includes the concept of Perception, the latter being the organization of the senses--sight, smell, touch, hearing, etc. Perception involves at least three processes. They are: anchoring, closure and categorization. anchoring In addition to perception, however, cognition also involves the organization (i.e. storage and retrieval) of perceptions implying memory. Especially the difference between short and long term. Lastly, Cognition involves expectations implying affective and behavioral components, hence the inference of attitudes.

7 Cognitive Balance It a negative drive state stemming from the organization of perceptions and the expectations for behavior. States that we strive to maintain consistency as in Heider’s balance theory: + A B X Here the balance results from the product of the signs being positive. Here the balance results from the product of the signs being positive.

8 Cognitive Dissonance Implies a negative drive state derived from the operation of two incompatible cognitions, two incompatible behaviors or an incompatible cognition and behavior. Implies a negative drive state derived from the operation of two incompatible cognitions, two incompatible behaviors or an incompatible cognition and behavior. The original experiment had students advise other students in an experiment that they were going to enjoy it, knowing full will that it was boring. They were paid either $10 or $1 and then ask to actually rate their satisfaction. The $1 dollar condition showed more satisfaction than did the $10 condition.

9 Cognitive Dissonance This drive for consistency seems to be directly related to one’s ego involvement That is: If it is free choice If it is publicly accountable If it is longer duration

10 Attribution Observe the Act Observe the Act Impute the Intention Impute the Intention Make the Dispositional Inference Make the Dispositional Inference Assess the variation over: –Time –Place –People


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