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BY: BRITTANY HOGH, DAN GONZALEZ & MATT H. Overweight: an excess of weight relative to height or BMI of 25-29.9 Obese: excess body fat or a BMI of 30 or.

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Presentation on theme: "BY: BRITTANY HOGH, DAN GONZALEZ & MATT H. Overweight: an excess of weight relative to height or BMI of 25-29.9 Obese: excess body fat or a BMI of 30 or."— Presentation transcript:


2 Overweight: an excess of weight relative to height or BMI of 25-29.9 Obese: excess body fat or a BMI of 30 or higher BMI: body mass index; a measure of a person’s weight relative to height Waist circumference >40 inches for men & >35 inches for females (5)

3 More than one-third of U.S. adults (35.7%) are obese In 2008 medical costs associated with obesity were estimated to be $147 billion The cost for those who are obese estimated to be $1429 or higher than those of normal weight (1)

4 Non-Hispanic African Americans have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity (49.5%) compared to Mexican Americans at 40.4%, all Hispanics at 39.1% and non-Hispanic whites at 34.3% Nearly 45% if women & 30% of men are trying to loose weight at any given time (textbook) They spent $40 billion annually on gym memberships, exercise equipment, weight lose supplements and programs (1)

5 No state in the U.S. met Healthy People 2010’s goal to lower obesity prevalence to 15% (1)

6 Hypertension Type 2 diabetes Hyperlipidemia Heart Disease Stroke Various types of cancer Osteoarthritis Respiratory problems Gallbladder disease (5)

7 Cardiovascular system  Increased workload for the heart  Experience elevated heart rate  Increase in blood pressure  Greater blood volume  Greater blood sodium content  Aneurism  Varicose veins develop  Arteriosclerosis & Atherosclerosis  Experience edema in the lower extremities resulting in poor circulation  (5)

8 Arteriosclerosis: when blood vessels thicken and harden making them less flexible Atherosclerosis: fatty build up or plaque accumulates in the arteries, causing the vessels to become narrow or obstructed (5)

9 Musculoskeletal system  Osteoarthritis  Inflammatory arthritis  Lumbar spine & soft tissue conditions  Osteoporosis  Gait problems  Limits physical function & disability can occur  Balance & locomotion problems (5)

10 Respiratory system  Increases risk for pulmonary embolism, pneumonia & respiratory failure  Limits respiratory capacity  Diminishing lung volume  Interfering with breathing mechanics  Impairing gas exchange  Sleep apnea  There is a link between obesity & asthma (5)

11 Digestive System  Acid reflux occurs more frequently putting an individual at risk for esophageal cancer  Gall bladder complications (including gallstones & gallbladder disease)  Accumulation of fatty deposits around the liver  More constipation which promotes hemorrhoid development (5)

12 Hormone Levels Effected & Interrupted including:  Leptin: produced by fat cells that inhibits the desire to eat and increases energy expenditure in an attempt to maintain body weight.  Adiponectin: produced by fat cells that acts as an anti- inflammatory & decreases the risk for heart attack.  Insulin: released by the pancreas in response to increasing blood glucose  Estrogen: produced by the ovaries and by adipocytes.  Ghrelin: produced by stomach cells that stimulates appetite and increases energy storage. (5)

13 Warning: most likely have other risk factors Increased risk for a cardiac event or stroke Increased Stress on Joints Greater risk for heat exhaustion (hyperthermia) Body fat distribution (4)(5)

14 Standard exercise equipment will not accommodate an obese individual Low physical capacity (lack of energy) Low self esteem Lack of time Fear of injury Body fat distribution  Intra-abdominal fat (android or apple shape: dangerous)  Lower body fat (gynoid or pear shape) (5)

15 Improves cardiovascular & respiratory functioning  Lowers BP & LDL levels  Improve heart & lung functioning Decreases risk for type 2 diabetes Improves mood Reduces overall discomfort  Research shows that losing just 14 lb of weight likely reduces the pressure on the knees by 30lb Promotes better sleep (4) (5)

16 Drugs  Appetite suppressants (Sibutramine)  Orlistat  Precautionary side effects: increases blood pressure Surgery  Decrease size of stomach  Lap band  Gastric bypass  Stomach stapling  Sleeve gastrectomy (2)  All surgeries have can have complications Diet & Exercise  Need to be closely monitored  Limit empty calories  Increase nutrient dense foods (2)(5)

17 Exercise Testing  Cycle ergometer with an oversized seat  Most exercise testing should be customized Initial workload should be limited to 2-3 mets Small incremental increases of.5-1 met per testing stage (5)

18 Medical clearance is necessary before exercise Weight lose is the primary goal Aerobic exercise Resistance training (5)

19 Frequency: 5-7 days per week moderate intensity (40 -60% VO2r) for 30-60 minutes As cardiovascular and respiratory improvements occur they can increase intensity to 50-75% VO2r Strive for 150 minutes a week & gradually increase to 300 minutes a week 5-10 minute warm up & a 5-10 minute cool down (5)

20 Obese individuals with normal mobility can participate in most traditional resistance programs Those with restricted range of motion should focus on simpler movements Frequency: 2-3 times per week Minimum of 8-10 exercises should target all major muscle groups Minimum of 1 set 8-12 repetitions (5)

21 Improves muscular strength and endurance, improves functional capacity, and enhances neuromuscular functioning Increases bone mass helping to prevent osteoporosis These changes reduce physiological stress (5)

22 Strive for a 5-10% weight loose over 3-6 months Change diet & exercise behaviors for long term weight loss Create an energy deficit of 500 kcals a day for a weekly weight lose of 1 pound (5)

23 Take the stairs Park farther from the door Take a short walk at lunch Turn off the TV Take walk breaks from work Wear a pedometer for monitoring your activity (4)

24 Overweight & obese firefighters missed five times as much work because of injury than those who had a normal, healthy weight Costs of obesity related absences were $1682.90 per fire fighter & $74.41 per overweight firefighter (3)

25 1. CDC. (2012, August 13). Center for disease control and prevention. Retrieved from 2. David, D. (2012). Pubmed health. In National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved from 3. The NSCA TSAC Program. Obesity in firefighters: Not-So-Silent Problem. NSCA. Retrieved from Learning/Firefighting-obesity--The-Not-So-Silent-Problem/ 4. Schmidt, S. (2012, January 10). Obesity and exercise. Retrieved from information/articles/2012/01/19/obesity-and-exercise information/articles/2012/01/19/obesity-and-exercise 5. Williamson, P. (2011). Exercise for special populations. (1 st ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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