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A Whole New World Developing Cultural Competence.

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Presentation on theme: "A Whole New World Developing Cultural Competence."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Whole New World Developing Cultural Competence

2 Why Global Awareness? Global society Immigration/ refugees Changing U.S. Demographics A worldview provides an ideological basis for food practices

3 Examples: Photographs of 30 families in 24 countries The photographers watched typical families the world over as they farmed, shopped, cooked, and ate. At the end of each visit, they created a portrait of the family surrounded by a week’s worth of their groceries.

4 Australia -$376.45 USD-

5 Bhutan -$5.03 USD + Homegrown Foods ($29.06 worth)-

6 Chad -$1.23 USD + Food Rations ($24.37)-

7 Ecuador -$31.55 USD-

8 Germany -$500.07 USD-

9 United States -$159.18 USD-

10 Mexico -$189.09 USD-


12 What is culture? Shared History Thoughts Actions Customs Beliefs Values Institutions

13 Cultural Values Principles or standards that members of a cultural group share in common

14 Terms to be aware of: Diversity – differences among groups of people (physical, socioeconomic, language, gender, age, etc.) Cross-cultural – interaction between or among individuals who represent different cultures Ethnocentric – one’s own cultural view is considered best

15 Demographics and Population Trends




19 Ethnic Groups in the U.S. - 2006 68% White Americans 14.8% Hispanic 12.4% - Black 4.4% Asian Americans 2.0% Multiracial 0.8% Native Americans 0.14% Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders 6.4% “Some other race” By 2042 non-Hispanic whites will no longer make up the majority

20 Health Disparities Socioeconomic status Lack of insurance Cultural Beliefs Traditional Therapies Access Discrimination Bridging the language gap

21 Developing Cultural Awareness Knowledge –Awareness of own beliefs and attitudes –Remember - Characteristics of groups are simply generalities –Avoid stereotyping

22 Developing Cultural Awareness Encounters –Communication Styles –Cultural food practices –Common health practices –Health care values, beliefs, and practices –Attitudes toward seeking help from health care providers –Religious behaviors and beliefs

23 Developing Cultural Awareness Interventions –Caring –Appreciation –Respect for clients –Practical considerations

24 US Cultures - USDHHS Hispanic Americans Asian and Pacific Islanders American Indians and Alaskan Natives Black Americans Religious Cultures

25 Hispanic Americans Largest and Fastest Growing Minority Group in the US Communication Styles –Expressing negative emotions is generally considered to be impolite –Touching between persons is common –Avoiding eye contact signals respect and attentiveness

26 Hispanic Americans Food Patterns –Beans/Legumes –Rice –Breads/Tortillas –Corn and Corn Products –Chile Peppers –Tomatoes –Meat/Poultry/Fish –Minimal Use of Dairy Products

27 Hispanic Americans Unique Cultural Issues –High school graduation rates are lower than average –Increased levels of poverty –“Role of God” for spiritual and health rewards and protection Nutrition Education and Counseling –Strong familial ties –All family members may be involved in decision making and counseling

28 Asian and Pacific Islanders Communication Styles –Respect for authority figures –Eye contact may be seen as disrespectful –Usually will not shake hands with people of the opposite sex –Focus is upon the family rather than the individual

29 Asian and Pacific Islanders Food Patterns –Rice –Vegetables –Fruit –Fish/Pork/Poultry –Nuts –Tofu –Diet Generally Low in Dairy Products

30 Asian and Pacific Islanders Unique Cultural Issues –Strive to reach balance or equilibrium –Holistic religious beliefs –Disease results from an “imbalance” and can be affected by food consumption Nutrition Education and Counseling –Increase calcium intake –Reduce sodium intake

31 American Indians and Alaska Natives Communication Styles –Speak using a low tone of voice –Expect people to listen attentively –Direct eye contact is often disrespectful –When greeting a person, soft hand touches are better than firm handshakes –“Yes” and “No” responses are considered to be complete answers –An “Elder” may speak for the whole tribe

32 American Indians and Alaska Natives Food Patterns –Wild Game –Sheep/Goat –Fish –Beans/Squash/Corn –Celery/Onion/Spinach/Potatoes –Cantaloupe/Watermelon –Wild Berries –Added Grey Clay (provides minerals)

33 American Indians and Alaska Natives Unique Cultural Issues –Strive for balance and harmony with nature –Desire to bring honor to their family and tribe –High rates of alcohol abuse –Lower socioeconomic status Nutrition Education and Counseling –“Thrifty Genotype” can lead to Type Two Diabetes and Obesity

34 Black Americans Communication Styles –Personal questions should not be asked upon meeting someone for the first time –Direct eye contact is seen as impolite –Touching another person’s hair is offensive –Participate in engaging and expressive conversations

35 Black Americans Food Patterns –“Soul Food” made with wild animals such as squirrels, rabbits, deer, etc. –Black-Eye-Peas/Okra/Collard Greens –Flour based Gravies/Pork Fat –Apple or Peach Cobblers/Candid Yams –Red Pepper/Cayenne –Sweetened Iced Tea/Kool-Aid –Decreased Dairy Consumption (Lactose Intolerance)

36 Black Americans Unique Cultural Issues –Family and region are key elements to society –Poverty and low income Nutrition Education and Counseling –Respond well to action oriented goals and activities –Counseling is more successful when the client or patient can take an active role –Reduce fried and high salt foods

37 Religious Cultures Jewish Communication Styles –Most Jewish people in the US speak English as their primary language –Appreciate direct conversation and enjoy analyzing issues –Prefer sitting and standing close (within 2 feet) to another person when in conversation –Emphasize respect and hospitality

38 Religious Cultures Jewish Food Patterns –Pastrami/Matzoh –Restriction on pork and pork products –Restriction on fish without scales and fins –Dairy is not eaten with meat at a meal –Kosher slaughtering and foods standards –Blood removed from all foods –Non-cloven hoofed animals are acceptable –Unleavened bread during the Passover

39 Religious Cultures Unique Cultural Issues –Clearly defined gender roles –Tend to marry early and have large families –Unleavened bread may be low in zinc Nutrition Education and Counseling –Identifying unique foods, such as Kosher foods, at the grocery store

40 A few points to remember: Increasing ethnic food shops may present a problem with increased food poisoning issues (traditional food preparation methods) Enculturation (rules passed from generation to generation) encompass many food habits Many foods have symbolism (Ex. Bread) Learn: –Core foods –Edible/Inedible foods –Meal Cycles

41 Remember: Be unbiased – not everyone needs to eat like we eat! A diverse culture adds a richness to the tapestry of our lives

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