2SYLLABUS Significant Person or Practice (Sayyid Qutb) Contributions to the development and expression of IslamImpact on IslamEthics (Sexual Ethics)Core ethical teachingsSignificant Practice (Hajj)Describe the practicePrincipal beliefs expressed through the practiceSignificance of the practice to individuals and the Muslim community
3Sayyid Qutb: Contributions His Writings (show context. When were they written? What are they about? What was happening in his life at the time?)Social Justice in Islam (during his time in the USA)In the Shade of the Qur’an (upon his return to Egypt and assuming a more active role in the Muslim Brotherhood)Milestones or Signposts (during his time in prison, whilst being tortured and, eventually, executed)His position as editor of the Muslim Brotherhood newsletter
4Qutb’s Contributions: He reintroduced/reinterpreted a number of Islamic conceptsJahiliyyah – pre-Islamic ignorance; people didn’t know what God’s will was until Muhammad brought them the Qur’an. Qutb wrote that Jahiliyyah refers to ANYBODY who is not Muslim (by his own definition), and he also attached the idea that these people were BARBARIC.Salafism – going back to the earliest days of Islam, under the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. Salafists believe that the earliest Muslims were the most perfect and piousJihad – “Struggle/strive against evil”. In Islam, the GREATER JIHAD (internal struggle) is the most important, followed by the LESSER JIHAD (physical struggle). Qutb, however, stated that physical action had to take place (as part of his vanguard for an Islamic revolution).
5Qutb’s Contributions: Takfir – Qutb had a very clear definition of “Muslim”. Anybody, even Muslims, who were different to this idea were “excommunicated”.Nizam Islami – true MuslimNizam Jahi – false Muslim, affected by “Jahiliyyah”Shari’ah – The law of Islam, i.e. God’s will, as determined through Islamic Jurisprudence. Qutb argued that Shari’ah was the ONLY truly Islamic way to govern any society/nation. Qutb argued against secular governments because, he said, they remove the power from God and give it to people.Tawhid – Qutb’s most central idea, also the central idea in all of Islam. There is ONLY ONE GOD and, so, all things will be at peace if they submit to the One God.Vanguard – Qutb called for a vanguard to eventually start an Islamic Revolution.
6Qutb’s Contributions: REMEMBERDEVELOPMENT = the ideas/theology/growth behind the tradition of IslamEXPRESSION = the physical way the tradition of Islam is practicedIMPACT/EFFECT = what happened to Islam as a result of the contributions? Short & long term?
7Qutb’s Impact: Qutb had a LIMITED effect on Islam: Only a small section of Islam was directly effected by Qutb’s ideas: Islamist groups.The majority of Islam was indirectly effected because Qutb was offering a new interpretation – the rest of Islam would have to reaffirm the more widely accepted understandings of Islam.
8Qutb’s Impact: Short Term: Long Term: He influenced the Muslim Brotherhood to rebel against the West, specifically the Western-backed Nasser Government of EgyptDuring his life, Qutb’s contributions had a limited impact, directly on those members of the Muslim Brotherhood who were given new understanding of their Islamic faith through Qutb’s writings. The majority of other Muslims in the world were unaffected, and Islam as a whole tradition did not change significantly.Long Term:Years after Qutb’s death, his writings are still being used by Islamist groups, and his ideas on jihad, jahiliyya, tawhid, etc, are also the focus of many of these groups.Islam as a whole tradition, however, has not been impacted in a large way by Qutb’s contributions, however moderate Muslim scholars (ulama) continue to make more sense of the Qur’an and their faith in ways significantly different to Qutb’s interpretations.
9Quotes from Qutb’s writings: “Mankind today is on the brink of a precipice… because humanity is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but for its real progress… It is essential for mankind to have new leadership!”Qutb says humanity needs new leadership based on God’s will (Shari’ah)This quote demonstrates his call for an Islamic revolution“Only Islamic values and morals, teachings and safeguards, are worthy of mankind… Islamic society is truly civilised”For Qutb, Islam is the only true system to live in peace in the world“Jahiliyya… takes the form of claiming the right to create values, to legislate rules of collective behaviour, and to choose any way of life that rests with me, without regard to what God has prescribed”Qutb defines jahiliyya“How must the Islamic resurrection begin? A vanguard must resolve to set it in motion in the midst of jahiliyyah that now reigns over the entire earth”A call for a vanguard of Islamic revolutionaries
10Sexual Ethics Always Remember: You MUST show an understanding of the Ethical System (i.e. Islamic Jurisprudence)SUNNI SHI’ITEQur’an Qur’anHadith HadithIjma’ AyatollahQiyasAll these steps are taken to determine Shari’ahSome terms:Fiqh – legal rulings by the Ulama (Muslim scholars)Fatwa – an instruction given by the Ulama
11Sexual EthicsThe ultimate purpose in Islam is to submit to the will of the one God (Allah). SO, the ethical teachings determine actions which are:Halal (permitted by God)Fard (obligations)Mustahab (highly recommended)Mubah (neutral)Makrah (highly discouraged)Haraam (forbidden by God)Also remember that family is fundamentally important in Islam, so teachings on sexuality are often linked with the concept of family.
12Sexual Ethics Some core teachings to consider: TAWHID JIHAD The belief in ONE God, which requires SUBMISSION to his willJIHADThe strive for perfect submission to Allah’s will. Can be physical (lesser jihad) or internal (greater jihad)FIVE PILLARSAn expression of faith, these are also obligatory actions which are good, ethical actions.
13Sexual Ethics Contraception Homosexuality Sex outside of marriage Are there any differences amongst Muslim variants?
14Sexual Ethics (Contraception) In Islam, family is central and the ultimate ideal. The use of contraception should be considered in this contextNot forbidden, rather discouragedHadith indicates Muhammad approved of birth control in some instancesQur’an: “Do not kill your children for fear of want. Allah will provide”
15Sexual Ethics (Pre/Extra-Marital Sex) Forbidden (Haraam)Hadith: “They will be punished, who engage in illicit sex”Hadith: “Let no man be in privacy with a woman who is not lawful to him”Qur’an: “Those who seek anything beyond that (sex inside marriage) are transgressors”Qur’an: “Let those who cannot find a match keep chaste”Sex is seen to be a natural part of the human experience, but it should only occur within the context of marriage.To commit adultery, or to have sex before marriage, is seen to be going directly against the will of Allah.
16Sexual Ethics (Homosexuality) Forbidden (Haraam)Qur’an: “Of all creatures, do you approach males and leave the spouses that the Lord has created for you?”Qur’an: “You come with lust unto men instead of women”Qur’an: “He creates mates for you, that you may find rest in them, and he envisaged between you love and compassion”There is no justification for homosexual sex in Islam
17Hajj (Describe the Practice) Describe the HajjStep-by-step description of each dayGive specific terminology, e.g.:Tawaf (circling the Ka’bah)Ihram (white clothing/state of mind)Wuquf (Stand before Allah – on the Mount of Mercy)Umma (worldwide Islamic community)etc.
18Hajj (Principal Beliefs) Principal Beliefs expressed in HajjBe really specific about the beliefs expressed in Hajj, e.g.:Tawaf reflects Tawhid – the Umma acts as one in completely submitting to Allah’s willWuquf reflects Akhira – Muslims be God for forgiveness in the hope that they may reach Paradise (Janna) when they die
19Article of Faith Event in Hajj Belief expressed Tawhid Oneness of God & Submission to God’s willTawafCircling the Ka’baWuqufStand before Allah – at ArafatJamaratStoning of the PillarsEid-al-AdhaFeast of SacrificeThe Ka’ba is a shrine to the One God. Through circumambulation, Muslims show a sign of their unity (Umma) and submissionPeople beg God for forgiveness as a sign of submission. They restate their commitment to IslamBy rejecting Sata, Muslims are accepting AllahSacrificing a lamb reflects Abraham’s submission to God’s will; Muslims emulate thisRusulProphethoodHajj was performed by the Prophets, including Abraham and MuhammadProphethood places importance on Muhammad as the ideal Muslim. Muslims try to emulate the actions of their prophetsMalikaAngelsSa’i – Jibr’il (Gabriel) saved Hagar and Ishmael by providing them with water (Well of Zamzam)The Angel Jibr’il (Gabriel) intervened and saved Hagar and IshmaelKutub’allahBooks of AllahThe story of Hajj is found in all sacred texts – e.g. Abraham sacrificing his sonQur’an clearly outlines the steps of Hajj in the chapter titled “Al-Hajj”Books of Allah are believed to be inspired words of AllahThe chapter “Al-Hajj” is the direct word and will of GodAkhiraLife after death/JudgementShaving/cutting of hairIhramMuslims beg for forgiveness of their sins in this life, so as to achieve Paradise in the afterlifeShaving/cutting hair represents “rebirth”Ihram symbolises the equality of all people on the Day of Judgement
20Hajj (Significance) Significance to the Individual & Community Once again, give specific examples from the Hajj, e.g.:Individual: Wuquf is the most significant part of the Hajj for individuals. They experience a “re-birth” or renewal of spirit. Many pilgrims are deeply moved and experience strong emotionsCommunity: Hajj is significant for the Umma. All men are expected to wear only the Ihram as a sign of complete equality in God’s eyes. So, rich and poor men from any nation are equals on the Hajj. This builds a very strong sense of community amongst groups of pilgrims