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USE OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT AND SECLUSION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Fayette County Public Schools 1 704 KAR 7:160.

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Presentation on theme: "USE OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT AND SECLUSION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Fayette County Public Schools 1 704 KAR 7:160."— Presentation transcript:

1 USE OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT AND SECLUSION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Fayette County Public Schools KAR 7:160

2 Agenda Fayette County Public Schools 2 Background Description of Handouts Benefits of Positive Behavior Supports and Interventions Schoolwide Positive Behavior Systems Behavior Management Strategies Effective Strategies for Responding to Problem Behavior

3 Background Fayette County Public Schools 3 Enacted February 1, 2013 Designed to enhance safety for students and staff by:  Limiting the use of physical restraint and seclusion  Training teachers on more effective ways to improve student behavior  Training teachers on how to safely conduct restraints when absolutely necessary.

4 Handouts Fayette County Public Schools 4 Regulation FCPS Policy and Procedures List of each schools “core team”

5 Benefits of PBS and Interventions Fayette County Public Schools 5 PBIS is not a curriculum — it is a framework to help schools identify needs, develop strategies, and evaluate practices. Implementing positive, instructional discipline strategies and systems is the most effective way to prevent decrease or eliminate problem student behavior.

6 Four Key Principles Fayette County Public Schools 6 Predicting problem behavior Preventing problem behavior Maintaining consistency Monitoring the program

7 Fayette County Public Schools 7 School-wide Positive Behavior Systems

8 Elements of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Fayette County Public Schools 8 Teaching and reinforcing appropriate behavior so that everyone, the adults and the students, are engaging in instruction and prevention Following consistent plans when responding to problem behavior Using data to guide decision making Reinforces students for following the behavior expectations

9 Multi-Tiered Behavior System Fayette County Public Schools 9 Our behavior POI is a multi-tiered system Primary (Universal) Prevention Secondary (Targeted) Prevention Tertiary (Intensive) Prevention

10 PBIS Pyramid Fayette County Public Schools 10

11 Key Points for PBIS Fayette County Public Schools 11 A school-wide commitment is crucial to success. A leadership team that meets regularly is essential. Analyzing behavioral data for patterns helps to predict behavior problems.

12 Preventing Problem Behavior Fayette County Public Schools 12 Routines and arrangements:  Standing in the doorway during transitions  Providing positive prompts before releasing students from class.  Keeping doors to stairways open.  Acknowledging students following rules.  Consistently correcting students who behave inappropriately. Teach expectations and post throughout the school.

13 Responding to Problems Fayette County Public Schools 13 Keys to responding appropriately to problems:  Classroom vs. office referrals  Develop a list of effective consequences  Always have correction as part of the response

14 Acknowledging Success Fayette County Public Schools 14 Ways to properly use reinforcement:  Verbal praise  Non-verbal praise (thumbs up)  Public acknowledgement  Privileges  Token systems, classwide reinforcement

15 Monitoring Success Fayette County Public Schools 15 Try to stay proactive instead of reactive Strive for a four to one ratio of positive to negative interactions

16 Behavior Management Strategies Fayette County Public Schools 16 Adults’ actions are key… Awareness – think about how your actions affect students. Strive for a 4:1 ratio of positive reinforcement versus punishment/negative interactions.

17 Building Positive Relationships Fayette County Public Schools 17 Quick strategies:  Showing a genuine interest in students  Providing age-appropriate feedback in a non-embarrassing way.  Treating students with respect by using simple courtesy such as saying “thank you” and “please”

18 When problem behaviors occur… Fayette County Public Schools 18 General strategies:  Acknowledge appropriate behavior displayed by students.  Speak privately to the student exhibiting problem behavior.  Identify the problem without emotion.  Present options.  Ask the student to improve their behavior for their benefit (not yours)  Acknowledge compliance

19 Behavior Management – Schedule and Routines Fayette County Public Schools 19 Having a consistent schedule matters!  Expectations for arrival times  A sequence and planned duration of activities  A routine for clean-up and transitions between activities  Explanations for any schedule changes

20 In addition… Fayette County Public Schools 20 All procedures are taught and practiced and feedback is given. Transitions between activities are smooth and without confusion. Transitions in and out of the classroom are clearly defined and practiced.

21 Physical Arrangement Fayette County Public Schools 21 Characteristics of a well-designed classroom include:  Clear expectations are communicated regarding acceptable behavior  Expectations regarding behavior are posted clearly  Transitions are smooth and without confusion  Transitions in and out of the classroom that are clearly defined and practiced  Students see teacher and teacher sees students at all times

22 Teacher Proximity Fayette County Public Schools 22 Moving about the classroom frequently and maintaining a close proximity to the students can have a dramatic impact on student behavior. Hovering near a particular student or area where behavior problems may occur is an effective strategy.

23 Positive Teaching Practices Fayette County Public Schools 23 Provide clearly specified goals and objectives Engage students throughout lessons Provide high levels of feedback Use verbal prompts along with physical demonstrations Use “natural models”

24 Behavior Momentum Fayette County Public Schools 24 Strategy for increasing the likelihood of appropriate behavior by asking a student to do two or three things they typically want to do and then following up with a request for a behavior the student typically does not want to do.

25 Additional strategies Fayette County Public Schools 25 Providing Choices Opportunities to Respond Prompts and Cues

26 Fayette County Public Schools 26 Effective Strategies for Responding to Problem Behavior

27 Why are these kids so angry? Fayette County Public Schools 27 Three types of anger:  Expressive  Passive  Implosive

28 Expressive Anger Characteristics Overt/Wants you to know Doesn’t seem to care about consequences May want attention Can be cultural or gender based Easy to recognize In control of emotions but not behavior Needs to talk about what caused anger Strategies Low-moderate skill level required for good response Teachable; will respond to anger management instruction

29 Passive Anger Characteristics Hides anger Knows how to avoid consequences In control of emotions and behavior Needs to talk about what CAUSED the anger Carefully plotted Strategies Never confront alone; witness are invaluable Get consensus before reporting.

30 Implosive Anger Characteristics Hides anger inside Wants consequences Ambivalent or flat affect Behavior dictated by out of control emotions Knows he/she is angry May be sarcastic, bitter Can’t explain actions Strategies Coach, don’t confront. Offer assistance carefully. Do not use negative feedback. Increase positive interactions Condition yourself to find good in the child. May need professional help or hospitalization

31 Phases of Escalation Students differ in terms of specific behaviors exhibited and the amount of time it takes to move through a phase. As educators it is our goal to use our knowledge of these seven phases of escalation to understand a student’s behavior and to intervene as early as possible in the process.

32 TIME 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery INTENSITY THINKING ABILITY

33 1. On Task 2. Follows rules and expectations 3. Responsive to praise 4. Initiates behavior 5. Goal oriented 6. Accepts praise 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 1: Calm

34 Strategies: Phase One Calm 1. Structure 2. Quality Instruction 3. Attention

35 1. Conflicts a. Denial of something they need b. Something negative is inflicted on them 2. Changes in routine 3. Provocations 4. Pressure 5. Interruptions 6. Ineffective problem solving 7. Errors 8. Corrections 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 2: Trigger

36 Strategies: Phase Two Triggers 1.Formal strategies for problem-solving 2.Individual Problem Solving Plan 3.Pre-Correction Plan

37 1. Eyes dart or may stare into space 2. Language non- conversational or subdued 3. Busy hands or hands contained 4. In and out of groups or withdraws from groups 5. Off task/On task or totally off task “Frozen” 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 3: Agitation

38 Strategies: Phase Three Agitation 1. Aim to reduce anxiety 2. Give space & time 3. Preferred activities 4. Teacher proximity 5. Independent activities 6. Movement activities 7. Plan ahead: Involve student in the plan.

39 1. Questioning and arguing 2. Non-compliance and defiance 3. Off task 4. Provoking students 5. Compliance (with inappropriate behaviors) 6. Whining and crying 7. Avoidance and escape 8. Threats and intimidation 9. Verbal abuse 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 4: Acceleration

40 Strategies: Phase Four Acceleration 1. Avoid escalating prompts. 2. Maintain calmness, respect and detachment. 3. Utilize crisis prevention strategies. 4. Allow a “face-saving” way out

41 1. Physical abuse 2. Assault 3. Self-abuse 4. Severe tantrums 5. Hyperventilation 6. Screaming 7. Running 8. Violence 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 5: Peak

42 Strategies: Phase Five Peak 1. Short term interventions 2. Crisis plan 3. Focus on safety 3. Long term interventions

43 1. Confusion 2. Reconciliation 3. Withdrawal 4. Denial 5. Blaming others 6. Responsive to directions 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 6: De-escalation 7. Responsive to manipulative or mechanical tasks 8. Easily re-escalated

44 Strategies: Phase Six De-Escalation 1.Minimize demands and attention. 2.Allow some time to cool down. 3. Engage in independent work or structured task such as counting items, sorting, etc. 4. Complete exit paperwork. 5. Restore environment. 6. Emphasize fresh start.

45 1.Eagerness for independent work or activity 2. Subdued in group work 3. Subdued in class work 4. Defensive 5. Sleeping 6. Avoidance of de-briefing 1. Calm 2. Trigger 3. Agitation 4. Acceleration 5. Peak 6. De-escalation 7. Recovery TIME INTENSITY Phase 7: Recovery

46 Strategies: Phase Seven Recovery 1.Provide strong focus on normal routines. 2.Facilitate transition back to engagement. 3.Acknowledge prior successful handling of similar situations. 4.Communicate expectation that the student can succeed and your willingness to help. 5.Establish a plan with specific steps. 6.De-brief. 7.Seek to reach closure.

47 Establishing a core team Fayette County Public Schools 47 Regulation requires each school designate a core team who is designated to respond to dangerous behavior and to implement physical restraint, if needed. Core team receives additional training. All school personnel will be notified who are the members of the core team.

48 704 KAR 7:160 Use of Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Public Schools Fayette County Public Schools 48 All school districts must establish and implement policies and procedures regarding restraint and seclusion that do the following:  Ensures school personnel are aware of and parents are notified how to access the policies and procedures regarding physical restraint and seclusion  Requires school personnel to be trained in accordance with the requirements outlined in Section 6 of the administrative regulation

49 Fayette County Public Schools 49 Outlines procedures to be followed during and after each use of physical restraint or seclusion, including notice to parents, documentation of the event in the student information system, and a process for the parent or emancipated youth to request a debriefing session Requires notification within twenty-four (24) hours to the Kentucky Department of Education and local law enforcement in the event of death, substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty resulting from the use of physical restraint or seclusion Outlines a procedure by which parents may submit a complaint regarding the physical restraint or seclusion of their child, which shall require the district and school to investigate the circumstances surrounding the physical restraint or seclusion, make written findings, and, if appropriate, take correction action

50 Fayette County Public Schools 50 Outlines a procedure to regularly review data on physical restraint and seclusion usage and revise policies as needed As required by Section 6 (1), all school personnel shall be trained in state administrative regulations and school district policies and procedures regarding physical restraint and seclusion. All certified and non-certified school personnel shall be trained annually to use an array of positive behavioral supports and interventions to accomplish the following: *Increase appropriate student behaviors *Decrease inappropriate or dangerous student behaviors *Respond to dangerous behavior

51 Limitations on the Use of Seclusion Fayette County Public Schools KAR 7:160 defines seclusion as the involuntary confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which the student is prevented from leaving but does not mean classroom timeouts, supervised in-school detentions, or out- of-school suspension. Seclusion may only be implemented in a public school or educational program under the following conditions:  The student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others  The student is visually monitored for the duration of the seclusion  Less restrictive interventions have been ineffective in stopping the imminent danger of physical harm to self or others  School personnel implementing the seclusion are appropriately trained to use seclusion

52 Limitations on the Use of Seclusion Fayette County Public Schools 52 Seclusion shall not be used:  As punishment or discipline  To force compliance or to retaliate  As a substitute for appropriate educational or behavioral support  To prevent property damage in the absence of imminent danger of physical harm to self or others  As a routine school safety measure  As a convenience for staff  As a substitute for timeout As defined in 704 KAR 7:160, "Timeout" means a behavior management technique that is part of an approved program, involves the monitored separation of the student in a non-locked setting, and is implemented for the purpose of calming.

53 Limitations on the Use of Seclusion Fayette County Public Schools 53 The use of seclusion shall end as soon as:  The student’s behavior no longer poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others or  A medical condition occurs putting the student at risk of harm A setting used for seclusion shall:  Be free of objects and fixtures with which a student could inflict physical harm to self or others  Provide school personnel a view of the student at all times  Provide adequate lighting and ventilation  Have an unlocked and unobstructed door  Have at least an annual fire and safety inspection  Be reviewed by district administration to ensure programmatic implementation of guidelines and data related to its use.

54 Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint Fayette County Public Schools 54 When choosing the trainer for the core team, school districts must refer to the following requirements regarding physical restraint: Physical restraint shall not be used:  As punishment or discipline  To force compliance or to retaliate  As a substitute for appropriate educational or behavioral support  To prevent property damage, except as permitted under KRS Chapter 503 KRS Chapter 503  As a routine school safety measure  As a convenience for staff

55 Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint Fayette County Public Schools 55 School Personnel Shall Not Impose the Following On Any Student at Any Time: Mechanical restraint Chemical restraint Aversive behavioral interventions Physical restraint that is life threatening Prone or supine restraint Physical restraint if they know that physical restraint is contraindicated based on the student’s disability, health care needs, or medical or psychiatric condition

56 Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint Fayette County Public Schools 56 Physical Restraint May Only be Implemented In a Public School or Educational Program when: The student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others and as permitted under: KRS KRS KRS KRS KRS KRS The physical restraint does not interfere with the student’s ability to communicate in the student’s primary language or mode of communication, unless the student uses sign language or an augmentative mode of communication as the student’s primary mode of communication and the implementer determines that freedom of the student’s hands for brief periods during the restraint appears likely to result in physical harm to self or others.

57 Fayette County Public Schools 57 The student’s physical and psychological wellbeing is monitored for the duration of the physical restraint. Less restrictive behavioral interventions have been ineffective in stopping the imminent danger of physical harm to self or others, except in the case of a clearly unavoidable emergency situation posing imminent danger of physical harm to self or others. School personnel implementing the physical restraint are appropriately trained as required by Section 6(3) (Core Team Training) of this administrative regulation, except to the extent necessary to prevent physical harm to self or others in clearly unavoidable emergency circumstances where other school personnel intervene and summon trained school personnel as soon as possible. Implementing a physical restraint, school personnel shall use only the amount of force reasonably believed to be necessary to protect the student or others from imminent danger of physical harm.

58 Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint Fayette County Public Schools 58 The use of physical restraint shall end as soon as the following conditions occur:  The student’s behavior no longer poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others  A medical condition occurs putting the student at risk of harm

59 Warning Signs Fayette County Public Schools 59 Warning Signs of Student Emotional Distress  Uncontrollable crying or screaming  Extreme withdrawal  Irrational statements  Urination, defecation, or vomiting Warning Signs of Serious Physical Injury  Complaints of pain  Bleeding  Complaints of severe pain with obvious reddening, swelling or abrasions  Signs of broken or dislocated joints/bones Warning Signs of Asphyxia  Panting, shallow breaths, or hyperventilation  Unconsciousness or unresponsiveness to regular verbal checks  Darkening of skin around mouth or nose, and in hands or fingernails

60 Recording and Reporting Data Fayette County Public Schools 60 THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION MUST BE REPORTED by the district in the Kentucky Student Information System: Aggregate number of uses of physical restraint. Aggregate number of students placed in physical restraint. Aggregate number of uses of seclusion. Aggregate number of students placed in seclusion. Aggregate number of instances of substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty to students related to physical restraint and seclusion. Aggregate number of instances of risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty to school personnel related to physical restraint and seclusion. Aggregate number of instances in which a school resource officer or other sworn law enforcement officer is involved in the physical restraint or seclusion of a student.

61 Policy Fayette County Public Schools 61 STUDENTS Use of Physical Restraint Use of physical restraint or seclusion by school personnel is subject to 704 KAR 7:160. However, nothing in this policy prohibits the exercise of law enforcement duties by sworn law enforcement officers. D EFINITIONS Physical Restraint means a personal restriction that immobilizes or reduces the ability of a student to move the student’s torso, arms, legs, or head freely. Seclusion means the involuntary confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which the student is prevented from leaving, but does not mean classroom timeouts, supervised in-school detentions, or out-of-school suspensions. P HYSICAL R ESTRAINT All School Personnel Use of physical restraint by all school personnel is permitted when a student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others in clearly unavoidable emergency circumstances. In such situations, staff who have not had core team training may physically restrain students, but shall summon core trained school personnel as soon as possible. In all situations involving use of physical restraint (including restraint by core trained personnel): The student shall be monitored for physical and psychological well being for the duration of the restraint. Personnel shall use only the amount of force reasonably believed necessary to protect the student or others from imminent danger of physical harm. Core Trained Personnel School personnel who have undergone core team training may also use physical restraint after less restrictive behavioral interventions have been ineffective in stopping misbehavior as noted below: In nonemergency circumstances when a student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others; As provided in KRS (including when personnel believe physical restraint is necessary to protect themselves against the use or imminent use of unlawful physical force);

62 Procedures: AP21 Fayette County Public Schools 62


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