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Chapter Five Addressing Cultural and Socioeconomic Diversity
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-2 Overview The rise of multiculturalism Ethnicity and social class Multicultural education programs Bilingual education
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-3 From Melting Pot to Cultural Pluralism Melting pot –Diverse ethnic groups assimilating into one mainstream culture Cultural Pluralism (Sleeter & Grant, 2003) –A society should strive to maintain the different cultures that reside within it –Each culture within a society should be respected by others –Individuals within a society have the right to participate in all aspects of that society without having to give up their cultural identity
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-4 Immigrants to the United States Source: U.S. Office of Immigration Statistics (2003). 66,089,431Total 9,095, ,795, ,338, ,687, ,493, ,246, ,321, ,812, ,515, ,314, ,035, ,598, , ,713, ,107, , ,735, , NumberYearsNumberYear
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-5 The Effect of Ethnicity on Learning Five aspects of ethnicity that are potential sources of misunderstanding: 1. Verbal communication patterns 2. Nonverbal communication 3. Time orientation 4. Social values 5. Instructional formats and learning processes (Bennett, 2003)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-6 Adverse Factors Experienced by Many Low-SES Children Many low-SES children do not receive satisfactory health care. Low-SES children are more likely than middle- class children to grow up in a one-parent family. Many low-SES students may not be strongly motivated to do well in school because of lower levels of need for achievement. Low-SES children often experience negative classroom environments.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-7 Teacher Expectancy Effect On the basis of such characteristics as race, SES, ethnic background, dress, speech pattern, and test scores, teachers form expectancies about how various students will perform in class. Those expectancies are subtly communicated to the students in a variety of ways. Students come to behave in a way that is consistent with what the teacher expects.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-8 Factors That Help Create Expectancies Middle-class students are expected to receive higher grades than low-SES students, even when their IQ scores and achievement scores are similar. African-American students are given less attention and are expected to learn less than white students, even when both groups have the same ability. Teachers tend to perceive children from poor homes as less mature, less capable of following directions, and less capable of working independently than children from more advantaged homes. Teachers who think of intelligence as a fixed and stable capacity are more likely to formulate negative and positive expectations of students than are teachers who think of intelligence as a collection of skills that can be shaped.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5-9 Factors That Help Create Expectancies Teachers are more influenced by negative information about students than they are by neutral or positive information. High-achieving students receive more praise than low-achieving students. Attractive children are often perceived by teachers to be brighter, more capable, and more social than unattractive children. Teachers tend to approve of girls’ behavior more frequently than they approve of boys’ behavior.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Multicultural Education Programs Promote self-acceptance and respect for other cultures by studying the impact ethnic groups have had on American society. Learning about the achievements of one’s cultural group will raise self-and group esteem. Teachers should give all students a sense of being valued and accepted by expressing positive attitudes, by using appropriate instructional methods, and by formulating fair disciplinary policies and practices. Individuals must have self-esteem and group esteem to productively work with people from other cultures. Promote understanding of the origins and lack of validity of ethnic stereotypes. U.S. culture has been formed by the contributions of different cultural groups. Goals of Multicultural Education Assumptions of Multicultural Education
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Multicultural Education Programs Help students master basic reading, writing, and computation skills, by embedding them in a personally meaningful (i.e., ethnically related) context. Academic performance is enhanced when teachers incorporate various cultural values and experiences into instructional lessons. Reduce ethnocentrism and increase positive relationships among members of different ethnic groups by understanding the viewpoints and products of these groups. American society benefits from positive interactions between members of different cultural groups. Goals of Multicultural Education Assumptions of Multicultural Education
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Approaches to Multicultural Education (Banks, 2001, 2002) Contributions Approach –Ethnic historical figures whose values and behaviors are consistent with American mainstream culture are studied while individuals who have challenged the dominant view are ignored. Ethnic Additive Approach –An instructional unit composed of concepts, themes, points of view, and individual accomplishments is simply added to the curriculum.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Approaches to Multicultural Education (Banks, 2001, 2002) Transformation Approach –There is no one valid way of understanding people, events, concepts, and themes; there are multiple views, each of which has something of value to offer. Decision-Making and Social Action Approach –Incorporates components of all the other approaches and adds the requirement that students make decisions and take actions concerning a concept, issue, or problem being studied.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Key Concepts (Banks, 2002) Immigration Culture Identity Perspectives Ethnic institutions Acculturation Demographic, social, political, and economic status Racism and discrimination Intraethnic diversity
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Characteristics of Effective Multicultural Teachers Provides students with clear objectives. Continuously communicates high expectations to the students. Monitors student progress and provides immediate feedback. Has several years experience in teaching culturally diverse students. Can clearly explain why she uses specific instructional techniques.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Characteristics of Effective Multicultural Teachers Strives to embed instruction in a meaningful context. Provides opportunities for active learning through small-group work and hands-on activities. Exhibits a high level of dedication. Enhances students’ self-esteem by having classroom materials and practices reflect students’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Has a strong affinity for the students.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Recommended Instructional Tactics Peer tutoring Teaching of one student by another Cooperative learning Working in small, heterogeneous groups to help one another master a task Mastery learning Approach that assumes most children can master the curriculum if certain conditions are established
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Rationale for Multicultural Education Multicultural programs foster teaching practices that are effective in general as well as for members of a particular group. All students may profit from understanding different cultural values. The U.S. is becoming an increasingly multicultural society and students need to understand and know how to work with people of cultures different from their own.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Rationale for Multicultural Education Multicultural education programs expose students to the idea that “truth” is very much in the eye of the beholder. Multicultural programs can encourage student motivation and learning. The rationale for multicultural education that we have provided has been reinforced by numerous studies that document the disappointing academic performance of a significant number of minority-group students.
Chapter 5 Addressing Cultural and Socioeconomic Diversity.
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