2Gender differences in education This PowerPoint is to review and revise issues in gender and education. Specifically it will look at girls in education and some of the reasons why they have improved.In recent years there have been some significant changes in the area of gender and education.Both females and males have improved in terms of the qualifications they achieve in education. However girls have now overtaken boys.How do we know this?Official statistics!!By looking at national statistics on education you can see the differences between male and female achievement.Use the hyperlink below to explore these statistics (you will need the education section and you can search using key words like gender).
3How do we know girls are outperforming boys? Starting schoolBaseline assessments are given to children (Government and qualifications and curriculum authority, 1999). They found girls score higher in all tests.Key stage 1 to 3Girls do consistently better than boys, especially in English but even in ‘male’ subjects like maths and scienceGCSEThe gap has widened between girls and boys to over 10%AS and A2Girls are more likely tom pass their exams and get higher grades, even in so called ‘boys subjects’.
4Reasons for girls achievement There are many reasons for gender differences in education. We will now look at reasons for girls improvement. This can be divided up into external factors and internal factors.External factors:factors outside the education system, such as home and family background and wider society.Internal factors:Factors within schools and the education system, such as the effect of school policies.
5Factors affecting gender differences The impact of feminismChanges in the familyChanges in women’s employmentGirls changing attitudes and ambitionsEqual opportunities policiesPositive role models in schoolsGCSE and courseworkChallenging stereotypes in the curriculumTeachers attention and classroom interactionInternal factorsExternal factors
6External factors Changes in the family Impact of feminism There has been big changes in the family since the 1970’s.These changes have effected girls attitudes to education in a number of ways.Increase in lone parent (mainly female headed). So more women are taking on the breadwinner role, thus creating a new role model for girls where qualifications are needed to get a good job.Increase in divorce means girls may have to support themselves financially, this will encourage girls to get their own qualifications to make a living.Impact of feminismFeminism is a social movement, it strives for equal rights between men and women.It has fought for changes in how women are seen in society and the media. It has fought against patriarchy (male dominance).It has raised women’s expectations and their self esteem.This has lead to girls realising that there isn’t only the housewife role available to them. Feminism has affected girl’s own self-image, showing them choices that weren’t there before.In turn, females have begun to strive for success in all areas of society, including education.
7External factors continued… Changes in women’s employmentIn the last few decades there have been a number of important changes in women’s employment1970 Equal Pay Act – illegal to pay women less than men for the same jobMore women are now in employment (part-time and often in the service sector)Some women are now breaking through the ‘glass ceiling’ (invisible barrier that keeps them from reaching the top)All these changes encourage females to do well in education, as they now see there are many job opportunities for themGirls changing attitudes and ambitionsChanges in family and employment have lead to changes in girls attitudes and prioritiesSue Sharpe interviewed girls in the 1970s on their priorities. She found that their priorities were marriage and children.She redid her study in 1994 and discovered that girls priorities had changed.Their priorities were now jobs and careers with marriage and children being less of a priority.This obviously has an influence on their attitudes to education