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High Impact Research: Blending Science, Engineering & Design Ben Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction.

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Presentation on theme: "High Impact Research: Blending Science, Engineering & Design Ben Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 High Impact Research: Blending Science, Engineering & Design Ben Founding Director ( ), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742

2 Interdisciplinary research community - Computer Science & Info Studies - Psych, Socio, Educ, Jour & MITH vimeo.com/

3 Design Issues Input devices & strategies Keyboards, pointing devices, voice Direct manipulation Menus, forms, commands Output devices & formats Screens, windows, color, sound Text, tables, graphics Instructions, messages, help Collaboration & Social Media Help, tutorials, training Search Fifth Edition: 2010 Visualization

4 HCI Pride: Serving 5B Users Mobile, desktop, web, cloud  Diverse users: novice/expert, young/old, literate/illiterate, abled/disabled, cultural, ethnic & linguistic diversity, gender, personality, skills, motivation,...  Diverse applications: E-commerce, law, health/wellness, education, creative arts, community relationships, politics, IT4ID, policy negotiation, mediation, peace studies,...  Diverse interfaces: Ubiquitous, pervasive, embedded, tangible, invisible, multimodal, immersive/augmented/virtual, ambient, social, affective, empathic, persuasive,...

5 Spotfire: Retinol’s role in embryos & vision

6 Spotfire: DC natality data

7 Spotfire Treemap: Bond Portfolio Analysis

8 Spotfire Networks: Supply Chain Analysis

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10 10M - 100M pixels: Large displays

11 16M pixels: My New Workstation

12 100M-pixels & more

13 1M-pixels & less Small mobile devices

14 Information Visualization: Mantra Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand (The Eyes Have It, IEEE VL, 1996)

15 Information Visualization: Data Types 1-D Linear Document Lens, SeeSoft, Info Mural 2-D Map GIS, ArcView, PageMaker, Medical imagery 3-D World CAD, Medical, Molecules, Architecture Multi-Var Spotfire, Tableau, Qliktech, DataWatch Temporal EventFlow, TimeSearcher, Palantir, DataMontage Tree Cone/Cam/Hyperbolic, SpaceTree, Treemap Network Pajek, UCINet, NodeXL, Gephi, Tom Sawyer Text TagClouds, Wordle, ManyEyes, Ngram Viewer InfoViz SciViz. infosthetics.com visualcomplexity.com eagereyes.org flowingdata.com perceptualedge.com datakind.org visual.ly Visualizing.org infovis.org

16 High Impact Research: Blending Science, Engineering & Design Ben Founding Director ( ), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742

17 High Impact Research: A Vision for UMIACS Ben Shneiderman (Chair, CS/HCI), Marshini Chetty (iSchool/HCI), Mihai Pop (CS/Computational Biology), Rance Cleaveland (CS/Software Engineering), Tudor Dumitras (ECE/Cybersecurity) Metaphor

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19 High Impact Research: A Vision for UMIACS Ben Shneiderman (Chair, CS/HCI), Marshini Chetty (iSchool/HCI), Mihai Pop (CS/Computational Biology), Rance Cleaveland (CS/Software Engineering), Tudor Dumitras (ECE/Cybersecurity) Metaphor

20 High Impact Research: A Vision for UMIACS Ben Shneiderman (Chair, CS/HCI), Marshini Chetty (iSchool/HCI), Mihai Pop (CS/Computational Biology), Rance Cleaveland (CS/Software Engineering), Tudor Dumitras (ECE/Cybersecurity) Metaphor

21 Jefferson’s Mission Statement (1804) “object of your mission is to explore…the most direct & practicable water communication across the continent, for the purpose of commerce.” + geography, geology, astronomy, biology, meteorology + Indian languages, laws, customs, religion, agriculture, hunting & fishing Inspiration

22 Kennedy Moon Shot Speech (1961) “The growth of our science & education will be enriched by new knowledge of our universe & environment, by new techniques of learning & mapping, … by new tools & computers for industry, medicine, home & school.” Inspiration

23 UN Millennium Development Goals Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development To be achieved by 2015 Inspiration

24 Make solar energy economical Provide energy from fusion Develop carbon sequestration methods Manage the nitrogen cycle Provide access to clean water Restore and improve urban infrastructure Advance health informatics Engineer better medicines Reverse-engineer the brain Prevent nuclear terror Secure cyberspace Enhance virtual reality Advance personalized learning Engineer the tools of scientific discovery Grand Challenges: NAE (2008) Inspiration

25 Ensure everyone can have access to safe & clean water? Restore movement to those with paralysis? Fly without damaging the environment? Help people with dementia live independently for longer Prevent the rise of resistance to antibiotics? Ensure everyone has nutritious, sustainable food? Longitude Prize 2014: Crowdsourced Inspiration

26 Ensure everyone can have access to safe & clean water? Restore movement to those with paralysis? Fly without damaging the environment? Help people with dementia live independently for longer Prevent the rise of resistance to antibiotics? Ensure everyone has nutritious, sustainable food? Longitude Prize 2014: Crowdsourced Inspiration

27 Science: The Endless Frontier (1945) -Separates basic (or pure) from applied research -Urges strong gov’t support for academic basic research: “statistically it is certain that important and highly useful discoveries will result from some fraction of the work undertaken; but the results of any one particular investigation cannot be predicted with accuracy.” - Warns: “applied research invariably drives out pure” Vannevar Bush: FDR’s Science Advisor The Problem

28 Science: The Endless Frontier (1945) -Separates basic (or pure) from applied research -Urges strong gov’t support for academic basic research: “statistically it is certain that important and highly useful discoveries will result from some fraction of the work undertaken; but the results of any one particular investigation cannot be predicted with accuracy.” - Warns: “applied research invariably drives out pure” But he was wrong. These beliefs are just not true. Vannevar Bush: FDR’s Science Advisor The Problem

29 Linear Model Basic Research Development Production & operations Applied Research The Problem

30 Linear Model Basic Research Development Production & operations Applied Research Rarely works: Basic Researchers choose wrong problems  Technology Transfer is a struggle The Problem

31 Reverse Linear Model Basic Research Development Production & operations Applied Research Successful pattern: Listen to industry problems & solve them  Technology Transfer is easier

32 Production & operations Development Applied Research Basic Research High Impact Model: Raised Expectations ecological-model-of-research-and-development/275187/

33 Production & operations Development Applied Research Basic Research High Impact Model: Raised Expectations “use-inspired basic research” “theory-inspired applied research”

34 Production & operations Development Applied Research Basic Research High Impact Model: Raised Expectations “Theory without practice cannot survive and dies as quickly as it lives.” “He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he may cast.” -- Leonardo Da Vinci

35 Research Project: 2 parents, 3 children Solve Problem Refine Theory Provide Guidance to Future Researchers Research Project Research Project Applied Problem Basic Theory

36 Research Methods Universal Principles - Understandable Descriptions - Causal Explanations - Generalizable Predictions - Reliable Prescriptions Observation Intervention Controlled Experiment

37 Research Methods Universal Principles - Understandable Descriptions - Causal Explanations - Generalizable Predictions - Reliable Prescriptions Observation Intervention Controlled Experiment

38 Research Methods Quantitative & Qualitative Data Hypothesis formation Theory Universal Principles - Understandable Descriptions - Causal Explanations - Generalizable Predictions - Reliable Prescriptions Observation Intervention Controlled Experiment Replicability Falsifiability Hypothesis testing Reductionist Model Context

39 Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities High Impact Research Strategies

40 Blend science, engineering & design research methods Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities High Impact Research Strategies

41 Science, Engineering, Design

42 Blend science, engineering & design research methods Form teams with diverse individuals & organizations Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities High Impact Research Strategies

43 Teams: Winning Strategy Magic of Two (End of the Lone Genius) Teams: hugely effective, but difficult to run May take practice to gain skills Clear goals, clear roles Trust, communication, recognition Large teams need administrative support scienceofteamscience.org

44 Blend science, engineering & design research methods Form teams with diverse individuals & organizations Strive for universal theories, principles & guidelines Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities High Impact Research Strategies

45 What kinds of theories are there? Descriptive Explanatory Predictive Prescriptive Generative

46 What kinds of theories are there? Descriptive Explanatory Predictive Prescriptive Generative Cognitive Perceptual Motor skills Small Group Teamwork Organizational/Leadership Social/Cultural

47 Blend science, engineering & design research methods Form teams with diverse individuals & organizations Strive for universal theories, principles & guidelines Test prototypes with realistic interventions Use big data & case study methods Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities High Impact Research Strategies

48 Prototype & test “Something Small Soon” Be agile, Gather data, Fail sooner Scale-up, scale-out Find partners with living laboratories Repeated case studies support theories Writing clarifies thinking Publishing gains feedback

49 Blend science, engineering & design research methods Form teams with diverse individuals & organizations Strive for universal theories, principles & guidelines Test prototypes with realistic interventions Use big data & case study methods Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities Promote adoption & assess impact High Impact Research Strategies

50 Ideas travel through networks and relationships Cultivate champions. Present, Present, Present! Become a trustworthy source in your field Address areas of policy interest Join relevant committees & insert your findings into decision making Consider Action Research designs Don’t wait for publication. Disseminate early How to Promote Adoption https://becker.wustl.edu/impact-assessment/strategies

51 Promote Adoption & Assess Impact Promote Adoption Send Five & Thrive Distribute copies of papers, create websites, make videos Travel to speak at conferences & to colleagues Write follow up papers, seek citations Assess Impact Measure downloads, tweets, blogposts, media mentions Win Best Paper Awards, collect testimonials Count citations Repeat for Research, Researchers & Organizations

52 Research on Science & Technology 1975: Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) 1993: Int’l Society for Scientometrics & Informetrics 2007: Int’l Society for the Psychology of Science & Technology 2008: NSF Science of Science & Innovation Policy (SciSIP) 2010: Science of Team Science Conference (SciTS) (www.scienceofteamscience.org)

53 Research on Science & Technology 1975: Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) 1993: Int’l Society for Scientometrics & Informetrics 2007: Int’l Society for the Psychology of Science & Technology 2008: NSF Science of Science & Innovation Policy (SciSIP) 2010: Science of Team Science Conference (SciTS) (www.scienceofteamscience.org) 2011: Altmetrics Conference (www.altmetrics.org) 2011: Beyond Impact Workshop (www.beyond-impact.org) 2011: Becker Assessment Model (becker.wustl.edu/impact-assessment/) 2012: SF-Declaration on Research Assessment (am.ascb.org/dora/)

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55 Quadrant Model of Research Basic Research (Bohr) Use-inspired Basic Research (Pasteur) Applied Research (Edison) Considerations of use? No Yes Quest for Yes fundamental understanding? No Stokes, Pasteur’s Quadrant, 1997

56 Desktop/Laptop software World Wide Web & services Mobile devices & services Human-Computer Interaction Information Visualization & Big Data Creativity Support Tools Technology-Mediated Social Participation Medical informatics: Learning Health System Environmental Protection Energy Sustainability Community Safety Education Potential High-Impact Research Topics Inspiration


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