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Theories of Personality What is it? Do you have a "good" personality? Do you have a "lot" of personality? Most think of it as social attractiveness EvaluativeDescriptive.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Personality What is it? Do you have a "good" personality? Do you have a "lot" of personality? Most think of it as social attractiveness EvaluativeDescriptive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Personality What is it? Do you have a "good" personality? Do you have a "lot" of personality? Most think of it as social attractiveness EvaluativeDescriptive Does not consider actual behavior only the effects of the behavior

2 Define: Define: Essentially the study of individual difference Essentially the study of individual difference Predicated on this position Predicated on this position “The unique organization of characteristics that is typical of an individual's recurrent behaviors.” “The unique organization of characteristics that is typical of an individual's recurrent behaviors.” Book–The underlying causes within the person of individual behavior and experience. Book–The underlying causes within the person of individual behavior and experience. As many definitions as there are personologists. As many definitions as there are personologists.

3 How Studied How Studied Idiographic—stresses the unique personality. No two people are alike. Must study them individually Idiographic—stresses the unique personality. No two people are alike. Must study them individually Nomothetic—personality is unique but it is not profitable to discuss personality in this way. Rather, they are going to use norms. Nomothetic—personality is unique but it is not profitable to discuss personality in this way. Rather, they are going to use norms. We will see different theoretical orientations using different methods to study personality. We will see different theoretical orientations using different methods to study personality.

4 Theories differ in: Theories differ in: Main Theme Main Theme Aspects of Personality–constructs Aspects of Personality–constructs How constructs are related How constructs are related Development Development Range of convenience Range of convenience Methods and tools of assessment Methods and tools of assessment Hypothesis/empirical Hypothesis/empirical

5 A theory is basically a set of assumptions about behavior. A theory is basically a set of assumptions about behavior. A “good” theory will: A “good” theory will: Be Logically Related Be Logically Related Have Operational Definitions Have Operational Definitions Be of high Usefulness–applied value Be of high Usefulness–applied value Have a high degree of Verifiability (Proof—NO!) Have a high degree of Verifiability (Proof—NO!) Show a high degree of comprehensiveness Show a high degree of comprehensiveness Which theory is the “BEST” theory? Which theory is the “BEST” theory? None really None really Should be Eclectic Should be Eclectic

6 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Background Background One of eight Oldest of Mother Mother’s “Pet” Wanted to be a teacher-but was Jewish Thus, went into private practice

7 Major Theme: The wanting of satisfaction and the avoidance of pain. The wanting of satisfaction and the avoidance of pain. To try to maximize instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt. To try to maximize instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt. Hedonistic Hedonistic The Ego is important but the Id is the major impetus The Ego is important but the Id is the major impetus Psychoanalysis–emphasizes the content of thought rather than the pure neurological aspects of thought. Psychoanalysis–emphasizes the content of thought rather than the pure neurological aspects of thought.

8 Mind: Mind: Conscious Conscious Preconscious Preconscious Unconscious – most of the important aspects of personality are unconscious Unconscious – most of the important aspects of personality are unconscious Repressed Repressed Dreams–Royal Road to the Unconscious Dreams–Royal Road to the Unconscious Manifest content (overt) and Latent content (interpretation) Manifest content (overt) and Latent content (interpretation)

9 Parapraxes or slips of the tongue Parapraxes or slips of the tongue Personality is Irrational according to Freud and he considers all of us to be irrational Personality is Irrational according to Freud and he considers all of us to be irrational Systems of Personality–Freud developed these late in his life. Systems of Personality–Freud developed these late in his life. Interaction of the three Rarely does one take complete control Interaction of the three Rarely does one take complete control What happens if it does What happens if it does

10 ID Innate/inherited Innate/inherited Primitive and biological Primitive and biological Libido – Source is the Id. Libido – Source is the Id. Psychic energy–not sexual energy Psychic energy–not sexual energy Libidinal energy is never lost it is only transformed Libidinal energy is never lost it is only transformed Pleasure Principle-Minimize pleasure– hedonistic Pleasure Principle-Minimize pleasure– hedonistic

11 Tension reduction Tension reduction Reflex action - Automatic reaction/reduces tension immediately Reflex action - Automatic reaction/reduces tension immediately Primary Process - Rids tension by forming an image Primary Process - Rids tension by forming an image Wish-fulfillment - Mental image (ID cathexis)/Dreams/Hallucinations. Can tell a lot Wish-fulfillment - Mental image (ID cathexis)/Dreams/Hallucinations. Can tell a lot Has no idea of time. No past and no future, only present moment counts Has no idea of time. No past and no future, only present moment counts

12 Personality is Basically evil/irrational Personality is Basically evil/irrational Instincts - inborn psychological representations of an inner somatic source of excitation Instincts - inborn psychological representations of an inner somatic source of excitation Psychological representation = wish/motive/food Psychological representation = wish/motive/food Body excitement = need/nutrition Body excitement = need/nutrition Eros – life, pleasure Eros – life, pleasure Thanatos – death, aggressive Thanatos – death, aggressive

13 Aspects of Instincts Aspects of Instincts Source - body condition/need, does not change Source - body condition/need, does not change Aim or Pressure - removal of body condition, does not change, regressive, motivational quality Aim or Pressure - removal of body condition, does not change, regressive, motivational quality Object - behavior used to secure satisfaction, can change, seeks homeostasis, reduce tension Object - behavior used to secure satisfaction, can change, seeks homeostasis, reduce tension Impetus - strength, can change, most variation for satisfaction Impetus - strength, can change, most variation for satisfaction Strives for balance Strives for balance

14 Ego Ego Initially develops to control the urges of the Id Initially develops to control the urges of the Id Develops from Id - displaced energy from Id Develops from Id - displaced energy from Id Libidinal displacements - "X" amount Libidinal displacements - "X" amount Cathects energy - invests psychic energy in need satisfying objects - Object cathexis. If not satisfying redirects to Ego Cathects energy - invests psychic energy in need satisfying objects - Object cathexis. If not satisfying redirects to Ego Id – image of bottle or breast Id – image of bottle or breast Ego – Food Ego – Food

15 Cathexis - Driving force Cathexis - Driving force As Ego becomes more successful it gets more energy - if fails it loses energy As Ego becomes more successful it gets more energy - if fails it loses energy Identification - matches mental image with reality Identification - matches mental image with reality Reality Principle – Delay gratification until appropriate – mature individuals because it considers consequences Reality Principle – Delay gratification until appropriate – mature individuals because it considers consequences Secondary Process - Realistic thinking Secondary Process - Realistic thinking Helps to get the ID real rather than imaginary satisfaction Helps to get the ID real rather than imaginary satisfaction Finds satisfying objects for ID’s needs Finds satisfying objects for ID’s needs

16 Reality testing Reality testing "Executive" of personality "Executive" of personality Ultimate purpose - further Id's aims Ultimate purpose - further Id's aims Mostly a Rational system Mostly a Rational system Strives for balance Strives for balance Defines the “I”– who we think we are Defines the “I”– who we think we are Strong, independent, and effective when it is able to effectively cooperate with the Id and Superego Strong, independent, and effective when it is able to effectively cooperate with the Id and Superego Is this rational? Is this rational?

17 Defense Mechanisms—protect the ego from itself Defense Mechanisms—protect the ego from itself They are not concerned directly with conflict or frustration. They are not concerned directly with conflict or frustration. How do they function: How do they function: They protect the Ego from ANXIETY They protect the Ego from ANXIETY Anxiety signals the Ego there is tension within the personality system that need to be reduced Anxiety signals the Ego there is tension within the personality system that need to be reduced Unconscious Unconscious Distort, deny, falsify reality Distort, deny, falsify reality

18 Types of Defense Mechanisms Denial–Primitive–more in childhood Denial–Primitive–more in childhood Reaction Formation Reaction Formation Projection Projection Identification Identification Displacement Displacement Rationalization–to disguise true motives– little distortion so considered a mature defense Rationalization–to disguise true motives– little distortion so considered a mature defense Intellectualization–sour grapes Intellectualization–sour grapes Sublimation–most desirable–creative individuals Sublimation–most desirable–creative individuals

19 Superego or Super Ego Values, norms, ethics - "Moral Arm“ Values, norms, ethics - "Moral Arm“ Develops from Ego Develops from Ego Strength and content of Superego primarily determined by our parents Strength and content of Superego primarily determined by our parents Ego Ideal – reinforcements Ego Ideal – reinforcements Allows individual to set goals Allows individual to set goals If attains, self-esteem If attains, self-esteem Conscience – punished Conscience – punished Demands perfection - Tries to persuade Ego that Perfectionistic goals better than realistic ones Demands perfection - Tries to persuade Ego that Perfectionistic goals better than realistic ones

20 Similar to Ego - controls Id impulses Similar to Ego - controls Id impulses Similar to Id – irrational Similar to Id – irrational Ego now balances the demands of the Id and the Superego. “I can have one more drink if I ask someone to drive me home.” Ego now balances the demands of the Id and the Superego. “I can have one more drink if I ask someone to drive me home.”

21 Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego Information which can easily be made conscious Thoughts, feelings, urges, and other information that is difficult to bring to conscious awareness Information in your immediate awareness Rational, mediating dimension of personality Moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality Irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality

22 Anxiety Anxiety Tension - needs to be reduced Tension - needs to be reduced Signals Ego danger Signals Ego danger Reaction to an unfamiliar situation Reaction to an unfamiliar situation Reality - real dangers - Ego Reality - real dangers - Ego Neurotic - fear something will be punished – Shame - Id Neurotic - fear something will be punished – Shame - Id Moral - conscience – guilt - Superego Moral - conscience – guilt - Superego

23 Psychosexual development (not really) Psychosexual development (not really) Libidinal energy, progress from autoerotic to more mature agents of pleasure Libidinal energy, progress from autoerotic to more mature agents of pleasure Fixation Fixation Overgratification Overgratification Undergratification Undergratification

24 Oral - birth to 1 year Oral - birth to 1 year Anal - 1 year to 2 years Anal - 1 year to 2 years Sad/masochistic behavior Sad/masochistic behavior Environmental constraints Environmental constraints Phallic - 2 to 6 years--Sex role identification Phallic - 2 to 6 years--Sex role identification Oedipus Complex Resolution - castration anxiety - provides the motivation for resolution Oedipus Complex Resolution - castration anxiety - provides the motivation for resolution Electra Complex - Penis envy Electra Complex - Penis envy Latency Latency Suspended animation Suspended animation Is Freud wrong here? Is Freud wrong here?

25 Genital Genital Narcissistic Narcissistic “Lieben und arbeiten” “Lieben und arbeiten” “To love and to work” “To love and to work” Descriptive of adult personalities Descriptive of adult personalities

26 Personality is essentially developed by age 6 Personality is essentially developed by age 6 Early childhood experiences Early childhood experiences People tend to be highly irrational. People tend to be highly irrational. Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Abnormal - overuse Abnormal - overuse

27 Very comprehensive theory - most of any we will discuss. Very comprehensive theory - most of any we will discuss. Precise and testable? No Precise and testable? No Lacks applied value? No Lacks applied value? No Totally lacks value? No Totally lacks value? No Unit of Analysis (data): Unit of Analysis (data): Free Association – tool for gaining access into unconscious mind. Free Association – tool for gaining access into unconscious mind. Dream Analysis Dream Analysis Remember, dreams are the “Royal Road to the Unconscious” for Freud Remember, dreams are the “Royal Road to the Unconscious” for Freud

28 Background Background Swiss Clergy Family Dreams shaped his life “Interpretation of Dreams” Carl G. Jung (1875-1961)

29 Differ with Freud: Differ with Freud: De-emphasis sexuality especially infantile sexuality De-emphasis sexuality especially infantile sexuality Greater emphasis on spirituality (mystical and religious). Greater emphasis on spirituality (mystical and religious). Emphasis on cultural universals in our experience Emphasis on cultural universals in our experience

30 Main Theme: Main Theme: The tendency toward attainment of selfhood The tendency toward attainment of selfhood Balance between opposing forces of personality Balance between opposing forces of personality Main Aspects: Main Aspects: Self–the integrated personality Self–the integrated personality All of the individual’s qualities and potentials All of the individual’s qualities and potentials Conglomeration of all the opposing forces Conglomeration of all the opposing forces Motivates person to wholeness Motivates person to wholeness

31 Individuation process-conglomeration of all the processes Individuation process-conglomeration of all the processes Psyche - thoughts, feelings, behavior, conscious, unconscious Psyche - thoughts, feelings, behavior, conscious, unconscious Helps us adapt to social and physical environment Helps us adapt to social and physical environment Strives for wholeness Strives for wholeness Compensation – relationship of conscious and unconscious Compensation – relationship of conscious and unconscious Need both Need both

32 Individuation–restoring wholeness to the psyche in adult development–mid life–becoming a fully developed person with all psychic functions developed Individuation–restoring wholeness to the psyche in adult development–mid life–becoming a fully developed person with all psychic functions developed Transcendent Function–integration of all opposing aspects of personality into a unified whole. Transcendent Function–integration of all opposing aspects of personality into a unified whole. The integration of the already differentiate systems of personality The integration of the already differentiate systems of personality

33 Ego: Ego: Conscious - individualistic mind Conscious - individualistic mind Differentiation Differentiation Gatekeeper - Selective Gatekeeper - Selective Directs business of everyday life Directs business of everyday life Sense of identity and continuity Sense of identity and continuity Personal Unconscious: Personal Unconscious: Preconscious and unconscious Preconscious and unconscious Defenses Defenses Develops out of learning and experience Develops out of learning and experience

34 Complexes - a cluster of ideas Complexes - a cluster of ideas Strong emotional content Strong emotional content Preoccupied–obsession Preoccupied–obsession Interferes with normal functioning Interferes with normal functioning Generally healthy - unhealthy in overuse Generally healthy - unhealthy in overuse Individualistic Individualistic

35 Collective Unconscious: Collective Unconscious: Most unique contribution to personality theory–most important Most unique contribution to personality theory–most important Communal, species memory– represents accumulated culture of humankind (even subhuman life). Lodged in psyche at birth Communal, species memory– represents accumulated culture of humankind (even subhuman life). Lodged in psyche at birth Due to genetic inheritance Due to genetic inheritance Not inherit specific memories/ predispositions inherited Not inherit specific memories/ predispositions inherited

36 Achieves consciousness through dreams and psychosis Achieves consciousness through dreams and psychosis Includes the archetypes Includes the archetypes Similar for all Similar for all Younger generations have more Collective Unconscious. Younger generations have more Collective Unconscious. Why? Why?

37 Archetypes: Archetypes: Dominants/Primordial images - thought forms from past Dominants/Primordial images - thought forms from past Common experiences Common experiences Psychic Instincts Psychic Instincts They have both positive and negative aspects about them They have both positive and negative aspects about them Determines, in part, perceptions Determines, in part, perceptions Psychosis Psychosis

38 Shadow-animalistic possibilities Shadow-animalistic possibilities Most powerful/dangerous Most powerful/dangerous Sexuality/aggression Sexuality/aggression Leads to vitality and passion Leads to vitality and passion Freud? Freud? Anima - feminine possibility in man Anima - feminine possibility in man Animus - masculine possibility in women Animus - masculine possibility in women Help understand opposite sex Help understand opposite sex Freud? Freud?

39 Persona - Conventional mask adopted in face of social pressures – how society expects us to act Persona - Conventional mask adopted in face of social pressures – how society expects us to act Freud? Freud?

40 The Great Mother–ancestral experience of being raised by mothers. The Great Mother–ancestral experience of being raised by mothers. The Spiritual Father–wise old man The Spiritual Father–wise old man The Hero–special forces allows to beat tough opponents The Hero–special forces allows to beat tough opponents The Trickster–ultimately brings about positive results The Trickster–ultimately brings about positive results Mandela–archetype of order Mandela–archetype of order Transformation–alchemists Transformation–alchemists

41 Synchronicity–meaningful coincidence Synchronicity–meaningful coincidence Phenomena which seem logically to be coincidental have connections that feel meaningful. Phenomena which seem logically to be coincidental have connections that feel meaningful. Psychic Energy–life energy Psychic Energy–life energy Psychic value–cathexed energy in an object Psychic value–cathexed energy in an object

42 Principle of equivalence - if value of any aspect of personality increases\decreases will be compensated by opposite shift in another aspect Principle of equivalence - if value of any aspect of personality increases\decreases will be compensated by opposite shift in another aspect Principle of entropy–the distribution of energy in the personality seeks an equilibrium or balance Principle of entropy–the distribution of energy in the personality seeks an equilibrium or balance Energy never lost, just transferred Energy never lost, just transferred

43 Development: Development: No real stages per se. No real stages per se. Causality - influence on behavior from past Causality - influence on behavior from past Teleology - influence on behavior due to the anticipated future Teleology - influence on behavior due to the anticipated future Psychological Types Psychological Types Person’s grouping based upon the three major dimensions of personality–eight different psychetypes based one the two attitudes and the four functions. Person’s grouping based upon the three major dimensions of personality–eight different psychetypes based one the two attitudes and the four functions.

44 Fundamental Attitudes: Fundamental Attitudes: Introversion (inner world) versus Extraversion (outer world) Introversion (inner world) versus Extraversion (outer world) Dominant Functions: Dominant Functions: Thinking–intellectual and rational versus Feeling–evaluation and rational Thinking–intellectual and rational versus Feeling–evaluation and rational Sensing–reality and irrational versus Intuition--perception via unconscious processes and irrational Sensing–reality and irrational versus Intuition--perception via unconscious processes and irrational

45 Word Association Technique: Word Association Technique: Give a word, say the first thing that comes to mind Give a word, say the first thing that comes to mind Used to help uncover complexes Used to help uncover complexes

46 Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Background Background Health-rickets, pneumonia Older brother- compensation Freud’s personal physician

47 How he differs from Freud: How he differs from Freud: Fulfillment theorist. Fulfillment theorist. Individual Psychology-Unique–focus on the ego. Individual Psychology-Unique–focus on the ego. He changed theory as time went on. He changed theory as time went on. Main basic motive underlying human behavior is the need to overcome inferiority. Main basic motive underlying human behavior is the need to overcome inferiority.

48 Main Theme: Main Theme: Striving toward superiority and perfection. Striving toward superiority and perfection. Good for the individual and society. Good for the individual and society. Striving for a goal. Striving for a goal. The same goal of wanting a perfect society. The same goal of wanting a perfect society. Going from a felt minus to felt plus situation. Going from a felt minus to felt plus situation. Dissatisfaction of the felt minus. Dissatisfaction of the felt minus. Present in infancy. Present in infancy.

49 Main Ideas: Organ Inferiorities–real physical weaknesses. Organ Inferiorities–real physical weaknesses. Inferiority Complex–when growth process stagnates. Felt Minus Inferiority Complex–when growth process stagnates. Felt Minus All neurotics have an inferiority complex All neurotics have an inferiority complex Feelings of Inferiority–psychological perceptions of weakness or inferiority. Feelings of Inferiority–psychological perceptions of weakness or inferiority. Has nothing to do with reality. Has nothing to do with reality. “I’m not smart–I cannot do well in college.” “I’m not smart–I cannot do well in college.” Can influence the individual greatly. Can influence the individual greatly.

50 Compensation-Attempt to overcome real and/or imagined inferiorities. Compensation-Attempt to overcome real and/or imagined inferiorities. No legs–becomes a sports announcer. No legs–becomes a sports announcer. Believe dumb–work all the harder. Believe dumb–work all the harder. If compensation does not work ideas become an inferiority complex. If compensation does not work ideas become an inferiority complex. Creative Self – trying to find or create experiences that will lead to fulfillment. Creative Self – trying to find or create experiences that will lead to fulfillment. Expressing the capacity of exercising free will to transcend the forces acting upon the person Expressing the capacity of exercising free will to transcend the forces acting upon the person It is compensatory–creative way to compensate for feelings of inferiority It is compensatory–creative way to compensate for feelings of inferiority

51 Fictional Finalisms--Ideals of perfection and superiority. Fictional Finalisms--Ideals of perfection and superiority. Subjective experience rather than objective reality Subjective experience rather than objective reality Usually are a fiction–“All people are created equal.” Normals can see the fiction but they can still use the finalism to spur or drive their behavior. Usually are a fiction–“All people are created equal.” Normals can see the fiction but they can still use the finalism to spur or drive their behavior. Unique to the individual. Unique to the individual. Helps us to set goals and reach achievements. Helps us to set goals and reach achievements. May be conscious or unconscious. May be conscious or unconscious.

52 Social Interest–How we take an interest in others. Social Interest–How we take an interest in others. Occupational Tasks - vocation, productive. Occupational Tasks - vocation, productive. Societal Tasks - adapt to others & show an interest in others. Societal Tasks - adapt to others & show an interest in others. Love Tasks - relationships between and among the sexes. The three are tasks are highly related. Love Tasks - relationships between and among the sexes. The three are tasks are highly related. Neurotics-strives for self-interests. Neurotics-strives for self-interests. Normals-wants to help advance a perfect society. Normals-wants to help advance a perfect society.

53 Style of Life--How we fit into our own particular niche-what we are like. Style of Life--How we fit into our own particular niche-what we are like. Established by age 4 or 5 Established by age 4 or 5 All other needs are subordinate to it. All other needs are subordinate to it. "The very pattern of each existence as the person creates it.“ "The very pattern of each existence as the person creates it.“ Based on unique interrelations of inferiorities. Based on unique interrelations of inferiorities. The unique way in which a person pursues her/his goals The unique way in which a person pursues her/his goals Must first develop social interest. Must first develop social interest.

54 First memories–do not have to be accurate–psychological aspects effect memory and that is what is important First memories–do not have to be accurate–psychological aspects effect memory and that is what is important Can highly influence behavior Can highly influence behavior Key to understanding a person Key to understanding a person

55 Mistaken Styles of Life Ruling Type–want to dominate others Ruling Type–want to dominate others Sadistic, tyrannical, delinquent Sadistic, tyrannical, delinquent Getting Type–dependently leans on others Getting Type–dependently leans on others Passive, lazy, depressed Passive, lazy, depressed Avoiding Type–do not want to deal with problems Avoiding Type–do not want to deal with problems Isolated, cold Isolated, cold Socially Useful Type–helps others Socially Useful Type–helps others

56 Development--No real stages per se. Development--No real stages per se. Based on quantitative and qualitative nature of the family. Based on quantitative and qualitative nature of the family. Family Constellation Family Constellation The unique sociological factors of the family and how those factors influence each child. The unique sociological factors of the family and how those factors influence each child. Gives each child a particular set of problems with which to cope. Gives each child a particular set of problems with which to cope. Only child, first child, absence of parent, etc. Only child, first child, absence of parent, etc.

57 Family Atmosphere–The unique emotional relationships between the different family members. Family Atmosphere–The unique emotional relationships between the different family members. Cooperative atmosphere of mutual trust and respect leads to constructiveness. Cooperative atmosphere of mutual trust and respect leads to constructiveness. Opposite leads to destructiveness. Opposite leads to destructiveness. Personal initiative atmosphere leads to activeness. Personal initiative atmosphere leads to activeness. Opposite leads to passiveness. Opposite leads to passiveness.

58 Styles of Life Comprised of Fictional Finalisms and Traits. Active-Constructive. Highly service oriented (this is the Fictional Finalisms for these folks). Positively ambitious. Most positive style of life. Adlerian Ideal Active-Constructive. Highly service oriented (this is the Fictional Finalisms for these folks). Positively ambitious. Most positive style of life. Adlerian Ideal Passive-Constructive. Tend to seek attention (FF). A positive style of life. Passive-Constructive. Tend to seek attention (FF). A positive style of life.

59 1 Active-Destructive. Hurts others. Spiteful, wants power (FF) over others. Negative. Active-Destructive. Hurts others. Spiteful, wants power (FF) over others. Negative. Passive-Destructive. Lazy, gets power (FF) by being lazy. Negative. Passive-Destructive. Lazy, gets power (FF) by being lazy. Negative.


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