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The Difference Between Assessment and Evaluation H. Stephen Straight Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education Teaching Assistant Orientation 28 August.

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Presentation on theme: "The Difference Between Assessment and Evaluation H. Stephen Straight Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education Teaching Assistant Orientation 28 August."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Difference Between Assessment and Evaluation H. Stephen Straight Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education Teaching Assistant Orientation 28 August 2002

2 What Is Teaching? Brainstorm: Think of different ways to define “teaching”. Write down at least three different definitions of teaching. Pair up with someone to choose the best ONE of your six-plus definitions. Share your definitions with the group, one at a time in sequence.

3 Definitions of Teaching To present information, insights. To reveal knowledge or skill. To help students learn. NOTE: All of the above can be accomplished either deliberately or incidentally. That is, you can teach by means of explicit instruction, ongoing guidance, deliberate modeling, or accidental example.

4 Ways to Improve Teaching and Learning Implement research-based “best practices”. Employ an assessment-informed model of teaching focused on measurable student learning outcomes.

5 Good Practice in UG Education (after Arthur Chickering & Zelda Gamson 1989) 1. Maximizes student/faculty contact. 2. Develops student cooperation. 3. Uses active learning techniques. 4. Gives feedback promptly. 5. Emphasizes time on task. 6. Communicates high expectations. 7. Respects learners’ diversity.

6 Ways to Improve Teaching and Learning Implement research-based “best practices”. Think of at least one way to implement each item of “practice”. Write down each example. Pair up with the person next to you to choose the best example of each. Share your findings with the group.

7 Ways to Improve Teaching and Learning Implement research-based “best practices”. Employ an assessment-informed model of teaching focused on measurable student learning outcomes. But first we need to distinguish “assessment” from “evaluation”.

8 Assessment vs. Evaluation What are the three most striking differences between the two? If we had time, I’d have you … Think Write Pair Share

9 Dimensions of Difference Between Assessment and Evaluation Timing Focus of Measurement Relationship Between Administrator & Recipient Findings, Uses Thereof Ongoing Modifiability of Criteria, Measures Thereof Standards of Measurement Relation Between Different Objects of A/E

10 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Timing

11 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Focus of Measurement

12 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Focus of Measurement

13 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Administrator/Recipient Relationship

14 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Administrator/Recipient Relationship

15 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Findings, Uses Thereof

16 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Findings, Uses Thereof

17 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Ongoing Modifiability of Criteria, Measures

18 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Formative: Ongoing to Improve Learning Summative: Final to Gauge Quality Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Ongoing Modifiability of Criteria, Measures

19 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Fixed: To Reward Success, Punish Failure Standards of Measurement

20 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Process-Oriented: How Learning Is Going Product-Oriented: What’s Been Learned Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Fixed: To Reward Success, Punish Failure Absolute: Strive for Ideal Outcomes Standards of Measurement

21 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Fixed: To Reward Success, Punish Failure Absolute: Strive for Ideal Outcomes Comparative: Divide Better from Worse Relation Between Objects of A/E

22 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Fixed: To Reward Success, Punish Failure Absolute: Strive for Ideal Outcomes Comparative: Divide Better from Worse Coöperative: Learn from Each Other Relation Between Objects of A/E

23 Assessment Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External- ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Fixed: To Reward Success, Punish Failure Absolute: Strive for Ideal Outcomes Comparative: Divide Better from Worse Coöperative: Learn from Each Other Competitive: Beat Each Other Out

24 Summary of Differences Dimension of DifferenceAssessmentEvaluation TimingFormativeSummative Focus of MeasurementProcess-OrientedProduct-Oriented Relationship Between Administrator and Recipient ReflectivePrescriptive Findings, Uses ThereofDiagnosticJudgmental Ongoing Modifiability of Criteria, Measures Thereof FlexibleFixed Standards of MeasurementAbsoluteComparative Relation Between Objects of A/ECoöperativeCompetitive

25 Assessment vs. Evaluation If we had time, I’d have you Think, Write, Pair, Share to come up with examples of assessment and evaluation to show that: The multidimensionality of the difference between them, and the variation in each dimension, result in a very diverse array of examples, the majority of which are neither “assessment” nor “evaluation” but rather hybrids.

26 Ways to Improve Teaching and Learning Implement research-based “best practices”. Put the examples into practice. Employ an assessment-informed model of teaching focused on measurable student learning outcomes. How to do this?

27 Employ an assessment- informed model of teaching Define learning outcomes (desired by teachers and/or learners) well in advance. Assess progress toward outcomes, by and for both teacher and learner, continually during learning. Evaluate attainment of outcomes rigorously as each learning opportunity concludes. Moment-by-moment, meeting-by-meeting, course-by-course, semester-by-semester.

28 Measures of Learning If we had time, I’d also have you examine examples of ways to measure learning with the aim of showing: that any measurement of learning can be used either for assessment or for evaluation purposes, but that some measures are better for one than for the other.

29 Ways to Improve Teaching and Learning Implement research-based “best practices”. Employ an assessment-informed model of teaching focused on measurable student learning outcomes. Be vocal about what you’re doing to improve your teaching and your students’ learning – and listen to others’ stories about what they are doing.

30 Five Assessment Principles (after Thomas Angelo & Patricia Cross 1993) To improve their teaching, faculty must define learning outcomes and measure their attainment. To improve their learning, students must learn how to use feedback to assess their own progress (= “self- assessment”). The best assessment derives from teachers’ questions about their own teaching. Systematic assessment can be an intellectually challenging source of faculty satisfaction. Assessment provides an impetus for active student involvement, a proven “best practice”.

31 Sources Chickering & Gamson, Change (the journal of the Amer Assn for Higher Ed) Apple, Process education teaching institute handbook (Pacific Crest) Angelo & Cross, Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers, Second edition (Jossey-Bass)

32 Presenter: Steve Straight H. Stephen Straight Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, Binghamton University - SUNY Professor of Anthropology and of Linguistics Co-Director, Harpur College Linguistics Program Associate Director, Center for Research In Translation (secretary: Deborah Dunn) (private voice mail) (fax)


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