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Chapter 4 Communicating Across Cultures Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Copyright © 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Communicating Across Cultures Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Copyright © 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Communicating Across Cultures Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Copyright © 2006

2 Ch. 4, Slide 2 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication Technological advancements General global interconnectivity Globalization of markets Intercultural workforce

3 Ch. 4, Slide 3 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Understanding Culture How is culture like a computer program? Society, gender, race, age, religion, and other factors control our reactions and behavior.

4 Ch. 4, Slide 4 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Characteristics of Culture 1. Culture is learned. 2. Cultures are inherently logical. 3. Culture forms our self-identity and community. 4. Culture combines the visible and the invisible. 5. Culture is dynamic.

5 Ch. 4, Slide 5 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Selected Dimensions of Culture Context High-context cultures (in Japan, China, and Arab countries) tend to be relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative. Low-context cultures (in North America, Scandinavia, and Germany) tend to be logical, linear, and action-oriented.

6 Ch. 4, Slide 6 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Selected Dimensions of Culture Individualism High-context cultures prefer group values, duties, and decisions. Low-context cultures tend to prefer individual initiative, self-assertion, personal achievement.

7 Ch. 4, Slide 7 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Selected Dimensions of Culture Formality Other cultures may prefer more formality. North Americans place less emphasis on tradition, ceremony, and social rules.

8 Ch. 4, Slide 8 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Selected Dimensions of Culture Communication Style High-context cultures rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to communicate. Meanings are embedded at many social levels. Low-context cultures emphasize words, straightforwardness, openness. People tend to be informal, impatient, literal.

9 Ch. 4, Slide 9 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Selected Dimensions of Culture Time Orientation Time is unlimited and never-ending in some cultures. Relaxed attitude toward time. Time is precious to North Americans. It correlates with productivity, efficiency, and money.

10 Ch. 4, Slide 10 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e High-Context and Low- Context Cultures HighLow Japanese Arab Latin American Spanish English Italian French North American Scandinavian German Swiss

11 Ch. 4, Slide 11 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Improving Communication With Intercultural Audiences Learn foreign phrases. Use simple English. Speak slowly and enunciate clearly. Observe eye messages. Encourage accurate feedback. Check frequently for comprehension. Oral Messages

12 Ch. 4, Slide 12 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Improving Communication With Intercultural Audiences Accept blame. Listen without interrupting. Tell speakers if you don’t understand. Remember to smile! Follow up in writing. Oral Messages

13 Ch. 4, Slide 13 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Improving Communication With Intercultural Audiences Adapt to local formats. Use short sentences and short paragraphs. Avoid ambiguous expressions. Strive for clarity. Use correct grammar. Written Messages

14 Ch. 4, Slide 14 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Improving Communication With Intercultural Audiences Cite numbers carefully. Accommodate reader in organization, tone, and style. Written Messages

15 Ch. 4, Slide 15 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Making Ethical Decisions Across Borders Broaden your view of other cultures. Avoid reflex judgments. Find alternatives. Refuse business if options violate your basic values. Conduct all business openly. Don’t rationalize shady decisions. Resist lawful but unethical strategies.

16 Ch. 4, Slide 16 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Proverbs Reflect Culture What do these proverbs tell us about this culture and its values? U.S. Proverbs Waste not, want not. He who holds the gold makes the rules. If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again. The early bird gets the worm.

17 Ch. 4, Slide 17 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Proverbs Reflect Culture What do these proverbs tell us about this culture and its values? Chinese Proverbs A man who waits for a roast duck to fly into his mouth must wait a very, very long time. A man who says it cannot be done should not interrupt a man doing it. Give a man a fish, and he will live a day; give him a net, and he will live a lifetime.

18 Ch. 4, Slide 18 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Proverbs Reflect Culture Other Proverbs No one is either rich or poor who has not helped himself to be so. (German) Words do not make flour. (Italian) Wealth that comes in at the door unjustly, goes out at the windows. (Egyptian)

19 Ch. 4, Slide 19 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Comparing U.S. and Foreign Views How Many U.S. Persons View Themselves Informal, friendly, casual Egalitarian Direct, aggressive Efficient Goal- and achievement-oriented Profit-oriented Resourceful, ingenious Individualistic, progressive Dynamic, identify with work Enthusiastic, prefer hard sell Open How Many Foreigners View U.S. Persons Undisciplined, too personal Insensitive to status Blunt, rude, oppressive Opportunistic, obsessed with time Promise more than they deliver Materialistic Deals more important than people Self-absorbed Driven Deceptive, fearsome Weak, untrustworthy

20 Ch. 4, Slide 20 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 1. The most dramatic workforce change since the 1960s is the growing number of_________ in the workforce. a. Hispanics c. African-Americans b. seniors (65 or over) d. women

21 Ch. 4, Slide 21 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 1. The most dramatic workforce change since the 1960s is the growing number of_________ in the workforce. a. Hispanics c. African-Americans b. seniors (65 or over) d. women

22 Ch. 4, Slide 22 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 2. By 2050, close to _________ of the U.S. population will be made up of Asians, Hispanics, African- Americans, and other nonwhite groups. a. one quarter c. one half b. one third d. two thirds

23 Ch. 4, Slide 23 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 2. By 2050, close to _________ of the U.S. population will be made up of Asians, Hispanics, African- Americans, and other nonwhite groups. a. one quarter c. one half b. one third d. two thirds

24 Ch. 4, Slide 24 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 3. Among individuals with a work-limiting disability, 44 percent hold college degrees and 75 percent are computer literate. How many of these disabled people are NOT part of the workforce? a. one quarter c. one half b. one third d. two thirds

25 Ch. 4, Slide 25 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 3. Among individuals with a work-limiting disability, 44 percent hold college degrees and 75 percent are computer literate. How many of these disabled people are NOT part of the workforce? a. one quarter c. one half b. one third d. two thirds

26 Ch. 4, Slide 26 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 4. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that between 200 and 2025 the number of over-55 workers will___________. a. decrease by 13 percent b. decrease by 23 percent c. increase by 53 percent d. increase by 83 percent

27 Ch. 4, Slide 27 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 4. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that between 2000 and 2025 the number of over-55 workers will___________. a. decrease by 13 percent b. decrease by 23 percent c. increase by 53 percent d. increase by 83 percent

28 Ch. 4, Slide 28 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 5. What percentage of the U.S. population over 5 years of age speaks a language other than English at home? a. 8 percent c. 18 percent b. 28 percent d. 38 percent

29 Ch. 4, Slide 29 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 5. What percentage of the U.S. population over 5 years of age speaks a language other than English at home? a. 8 percent c. 18 percent b. 28 percent d. 38 percent

30 Ch. 4, Slide 30 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 6. Based on the latest census figures, what are the two MOST racially and ethnically diverse states in the continental United States? a. Florida, New York c. California, Texas b. Florida, California d. New Mexico, California

31 Ch. 4, Slide 31 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 6. Based on the latest census figures, what are the two MOST racially and ethnically diverse states in the continental United States? a. Florida, New York c. California, Texas b. Florida, California d. New Mexico, California

32 Ch. 4, Slide 32 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 7. Based on the latest census figures, what are the two LEAST racially and ethnically diverse states in the continental United States? a. Rhode Island, Delaware b. Maine, Vermont c. North Dakota, South Dakota d. Maine, New Hampshire

33 Ch. 4, Slide 33 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 7. Based on the latest census figures, what are the two LEAST racially and ethnically diverse states in the continental United States? a. Rhode Island, Delaware b. Maine, Vermont c. North Dakota, South Dakota d. Maine, New Hampshire

34 Ch. 4, Slide 34 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 8. In 1960 married women with children made up 28 percent of the workforce. What percent of married women with children are now in the workforce? a. 40 percent c. 60 percent b. 50 percent d. 70 percent

35 Ch. 4, Slide 35 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 8. In 1960 married women with children made up 28 percent of the workforce. What percent of married women with children are now in the workforce? a. 40 percent c. 60 percent b. 50 percent d. 70 percent

36 Ch. 4, Slide 36 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 9. The most profound challenge for managers and administrators in all organizations striving for diversity will center on _____________? a. recruiting c. management style b. promotion d. communication

37 Ch. 4, Slide 37 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Diversity Demographics Quiz 9. The most profound challenge for managers and administrators in all organizations striving for diversity will center on _____________? a. recruiting c. management style b. promotion d. communication

38 Ch. 4, Slide 38 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e Tips for Capitalizing on Workforce Diversity Seek training. Understand the value of differences. Don’t expect conformity. Create zero tolerance for bias and stereotypes. Learn about your cultural self. Make fewer assumptions. Build on similarities.

39 Ch. 4, Slide 39 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e End


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