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Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Psychosocial Development In Adolescence.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Psychosocial Development In Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Psychosocial Development In Adolescence

2 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The Search for Identity Erikson: Identity Versus Identity Confusion Three major issues to be resolved Occupation Values Sexual identity Psychosocial moratorium Time out period during adolescence

3 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The Search for Identity Marcia: Identity Status– Crisis and Commitment 4 identity statuses Identity achievement Identity foreclosure Identity moratorium Identity diffusion

4 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The Search for Identity Gender Differences in Identity Formation Women Identity and intimacy develop together Self-esteem depends more on connections with others Men Self-esteem tends to be linked with striving for individual achievement

5 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The Search for Identity Ethnic Factors in Identity Formation Three aspects of racial/ethnic identity Connectedness to one’s own racial/ethnic group Awareness of racism Embedded achievement Belief that academic achievement is part of group identity

6 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Gilligan and adolescence Studied female self-esteem Prior to adolescence, female and male self-esteem is similar During adolescence, female self-esteem drops Girls tend to doubt themselves more May be torn between sexual maturity and being the “nice girl” Pressure to engage in close cooperative relationships which may reduce autonomy

7 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Girls tend to fight the “feminine ideal” – those who are too tall tend to slouch, those who are too short tend to try to look taller. Often become preoccupied with looks and weight. Girls tend to report a higher incidence of depression, dissatisfaction with their bodies, eating disorders and lower self-esteem Males tend to have stress at the onset of adolescence and tend to level off by the time they are in their teens

8 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Emotional Development Study of emotional dev. in children is fairly new Adolescents have become sophisticated at regulated their emotions Adolescents are adept at interpreting social situation as part of the process of managing emotional displays

9 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Emotional Development Adolescents develop a certain of expectations Children begin to break emotional ties with parents and develop them with friends Boys will start to regulate (hide) their emotions. Adolescents also regulate their emotions because of their sensitivity to other’s evaluations of them

10 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Emotional Development During adolescence (as early as age 10)….children begin to realize emotions aren’t as simple as they thought when they were children Boys are less likely to display emotions of fear as girls are Displays of empathy also increase during adolescence

11 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Social Development Begin to form an organized system of personality traits Self concept-allows them to add new aspects of self-esteem (how they feel about their “self”). As confidence and self-awareness rises-they begin to form self-identity. More able to develop friendships that are based on loyalty and intimacy. These social milestones occur slowly over time.

12 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Moral Development Many factors can stimulate a person’s growth through the levels of moral development. One most crucial factor is education Studies indicate that a person’s behavior is influenced by his or her moral perception and moral judgments.

13 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display ` Kohlberg’s Moral Development Level 3 – Postconventional Level – working within one’s own personal code of ethics Stage 5 – Social Contract Orientation – Morals based on society’s rules, however rules are now questioned and seen as fallible (early adolescence) Stage 6 – Individual Principles and Conscience Orientation – Morals based on justice, where the person does what they believe is right (adolescence)

14 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Early Adolescence(12-14) Rapid Growth Confused by changes Curious about final outcome Personal interest in their own development Rebellion against home Acts in way that looks to be considerable maturity and in the next moment babyishness

15 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Early Adolescence(12-14) Absorption with close friends of same age and gender Moodiness Sloppiness and Disorder Establishment of independence of self: Who am I? Body-conscious Strong desire to conform to and be accepted by peer group Appearance of Sexual Maturity Skin problems

16 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Early Adolescence(12-14) Constantly hungry (more than in younger years) Companionship at meals and after school snacks provide dining pleasures) Sleeps more than during younger years Sleepy at “getting up” times Wants to sit up at nights as sign of increasing maturity Clash between physiology and culture

17 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Early Adolescence(12-14) Special Characteristics of Boys Boisterous Clumsy Secretive, “clams up” especially around adults or at home Aggressive Dirty-can’t seem to get him near the bathroom Gain more weight and height than girls Much talk about sex and girls Out of house more

18 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Early Adolescence (12-14) Special Characteristics of Girls Vague and diffuse Crush on older men Interested in romantic love Playacting Talkative, but not communicative Giggly!

19 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Early Adolescence Sexuality Boys express their sexuality through masturbation Same-gender sexual encounters are relatively common These occur frequently enough to be considered as a variant of normal sexual development Questions that adolescents have about erotic feelings or behaviors toward the same sex need to be addressed directly and fully. It is not helpful…to just say…this is no more then a passing phase.

20 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Middle Adolescence (15-16) Greatest experimental, risk taking time Drinking, drugs, smoking and sexual experimentation are often highest interest during the years olds Peer groups gradually give way to one-on-one friendships and romances Peer groups tends to be gender-mixed Dating begins Less conformity and more tolerance of individual differences Omnipotence and Invulnerability are the rule This results in an inability to link drinking with auto accidents or drinking with pregnancy or STD’s

21 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Middle Adolescence (15-16) Striving for independence and autonomy is greatly increased Parental conflicts occur which need confrontation and resolution (these are normal and necessary) Adolescents confide in each other Sexual development results in unpredictable surges in sexual drive Often accompanied by sexual fantasies Sexuality is a MAJOR preoccupation of the middle adolescent

22 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Middle Adolescence (15-16) Sexual activity occurs more frequently among boys than girls Testosterone increases are found in both boys and girls but much more abundant in boys Higher testosterone levels in boys may result in greater sexual drives, sexual aggressiveness and more purely physical gratifications Girls at this age tend to view sexual gratification as secondary to fulfillment of other needs such as love, affection, self-esteem and reassurance

23 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Late Adolescence (17-18) Rebellious Concerned with personal appearance (can’t get them out of the bathroom) Moody Interest in the opposite gender Establishment of ego identity-”where do I fit into the world” Growth finally subsided Full stature almost attained Sleep requirements approaching adult level

24 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Late Adolescence(17-18) Food requirement approaching adult level Companionship when eating Intimate relation with friend fades Greater interest in opposite gender Needs acceptance by society, in job and in college Needs parental respect for opinion and acceptance of maturity

25 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Late Adolescence(17-18) “Whom am I as a vocational being?” Work opportunities during these years allow exploration of tentative career choices A choice of vocation reinforces the adolescent’s self-concept and is important to identify formation

26 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Late Adolescence (17-18) Factors Influencing vocational choice: Family values Social class Socioeconomic conditions Need for prestige Vocational Independence Special Abilities Motivation

27 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Late Adolescence (17-18) Special Characteristics of Boys Interest in plans for career Sexual interest prominent and demanding Less interested than girls in mate seeking

28 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Late Adolescence (17-18) Special Characteristics of Girls Interest in boys, now directed towards mate seeking Absorbed in fantasies of romantic love Less interested than boys in plans for career Sexual interest less demanding than in boys

29 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Sexuality Sexual Orientation and Identity Sexual orientation Heterosexual Homosexual Attraction or arousal Behavior Identity Bisexual

30 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Sexuality Sexual Orientation and Identity Origins of sexual orientation Partly genetic Chromosomes 7, 8, and 10 Non-genetic factors also play a part Number of times mother had previously given birth to boys seems to be a factor No association between orientation and emotional or social problems

31 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Sexuality Sexual Orientation and Identity Homosexual and bisexual identity development One model proposes the following sequence 1. Awareness of same-sex attraction (ages 8-11) 2. Same-sex sexual behaviors (ages 12-15) 3. Identification as gay or lesbian (ages 15-18) 4. Disclosure to others (ages 17-19) 5. Development of same-sex romantic relationships (ages 18-20)

32 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Sexuality Sexual Behavior 77 percent of young people in the U.S. have had sex by age 20 Average girl has first sexual intercourse at 17, average boy at 16 African Americans and Latinos tend to begin sexual activity earlier than white youth Asian-American youth have a pattern of delayed sexual activity saving sex for marriage or adulthood

33 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Sexuality Sexual Behavior Where do teenagers get information about sex? Friends Parents Sex education in school Media Gives a distorted view, associating sex with fun, excitement, competition, danger, or violence

34 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Is Adolescent Rebellion a Myth? Only 1 in 5 teenagers fits the pattern Emotional turmoil Conflict within the family Alienation from adult society Reckless behavior Rejection of adult values

35 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers G. Stanley Hall (1904/1916) Period of “storm and stress” Efforts to adjust to their changing bodies and demands of adulthood Sigmund Freud (1935/1953) and Anna Freud (1946) Universal and inevitable rebellion, growing out of a resurgence of early sexual drives toward the parents

36 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Margaret Mead (1928/1935) Concluded that when a culture provides a gradual, serene transition into adulthood, “storm and stress” is not typical Most young people feel close to and share similar opinions with their parents, and value their parents’ approval

37 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Is Adolescent Rebellion a Myth? Adolescence can be a difficult time for young people and their parents Family conflict Depression Risky behavior Mood swings

38 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Changing Time Use and Changing Relationships Disengagement is not rejection but response to developmental needs Cultural variations reflect varying Needs Values Practices

39 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Adolescents and Parents Parents feel mixed emotions about the need to let go and the desire for their children to be independent Tensions can lead to family conflict Parenting styles influence outcome

40 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Adolescents and Parents Family conflict and individuation Arguments are usually about mundane personal matters Chores Schoolwork Dress Money Curfews Dating and friends

41 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Adolescents and Parents Individuation Adolescent struggle for autonomy and differentiation, or personal identity Family conflict is most frequent during early adolescence, but most intense during midadolescence

42 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Adolescents and Siblings Adolescents spend more time with peers than siblings Sibling relationships become more equal as they approach high school Younger siblings still tend to look up to older ones

43 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Peers and Friends Influence of peers peaks at ages 12 or 13 Declines during middle and late adolescence Cliques Structures groups of friends who do things together Crowds Social construction based on reputation, image, or identity

44 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Peers and Friends Friendships Become more reciprocal, equal, and stable Tend to be chosen by Gender Race/ethnicity Have similar academic attitudes and similar levels of drug use

45 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Relationships with Family and Peers Romantic Relationships Central part of most adolescents’ social worlds Contribute to development of intimacy and identity Can entail risks of pregnancy, STDs, and sometimes sexual victimization

46 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Antisocial Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency Becoming a Delinquent: Genetic and Neurological Factors Genes influence 40 to 50 percent of variation in antisocial behavior Parents shape prosocial or antisocial behavior through their responses to basic emotional needs Authoritative parenting can help young people internalize positive standards

47 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Antisocial Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency Becoming a Delinquent: How Family, Peer, and Community Influences Interact Family economic circumstances influence the development of antisocial behavior Weak neighborhood social organization in a disadvantaged community can influence delinquency Cognitive efficacy

48 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Antisocial Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency Long-Term Prospects Delinquency peaks at age 15 then declines Teenagers who do not see positive alternatives are likely to adopt a permanently antisocial lifestyle Developmental psychologists want to see rehabilitation for juvenile offenders, not incarceration

49 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Antisocial Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency Preventing and Treating Delinquency High-quality day care or education Offering families assistance geared to adolescents’ needs Structured adult-monitored or school-based activities when not in school Constructive activities or job skills programs Extracurricular school activities

50 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Emerging Adulthood Markers of Adulthood Internal indicators Sense of autonomy Self-control Personal responsibility More a state of mind than external factors

51 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Emerging Adulthood Americans’ Top Three Criteria For Adulthood Accepting responsibility for oneself Making independent decisions Becoming financially independent Criteria Varies Depending On Culture Collectivist values

52 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Transition to Middle & Junior High School When students make transition from elementary to middle or junior high school - they experience top-dog phenomenon: Circumstance of moving from top position in elementary school to lowest position in middle/junior high school These positions are characterized by being oldest, biggest & most powerful versus youngest, smallest & least powerful

53 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Values Adolescents carry with them a set of values that influences their thoughts, feelings& actions Over past two decades, they have shown an increased concern for personal well-being & decreased concern for well-being of others & demonstrate an increasing need for self-fulfillment & self-expression Some signs indicate that today’s students are shifting toward stronger interest in welfare of society as there has been increase in percentage of freshmen who said that they were strongly interested in participating in community action programs

54 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Schools for Adolescents Controversy Surrounding Secondary Schools This century has seen schools playing prominent role in lives of adolescents Laws excluding teens from work & mandating attendance at school were passed by virtually every state Some experts believe that junior & senior high schools actually contribute to alienation & delinquency & interfere with transition to adulthood A push for back-to-basics where students are being taught fundamental skills & knowledge needed for workplace

55 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Theories of Career Development Three main theories describe manner in which adolescents make choices about career development: Ginzberg’s Developmental Theory Children and adolescents go through three career- choice stages: fantasy, tentative, and realistic Until about age 11, children are in fantasy stage with unrealistic visions of their career Tentative stage is a transitional and occurs in the early to mid-adolescent years Realistic stage explores, focuses & then selects a career

56 Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Theories of Career Development Super’s Self-Concept Theory Individuals’ self-concepts play central roles in their career choices During adolescence individuals first construct a career self-concept Develop ideas about work Crystallize or narrow their choices Begin to initiate behavior for some type of career Begin specific training for a career In later life - after 35 years of age - begin to consolidate & engage in career enhancement


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