2 PBS DefinitionPositive behavior support (PBS) is a proactive, comprehensive, systemic and individualized continuum of support designed to provide opportunities to all students, including students with disabilities, for achieving social and learning success, while preventing problem behaviors.
3 Traditional Approach to Managing Challenging Behaviors Perception of noncomplianceMaintain/increasechallenging behaviorsLook to“Control “or“Punish”Design/applymanipulativeinterventionsto have powerover studentStudent’s needsremainunaddressed(Knoster and Lapos, 1993)
4 Effective Behavior Support ChallengingbehaviorPerception of unmet needsPersonalgrowthimprovesself controlLook tounderstandneeds anddevelophypothesisReductions inchallenging behaviorsby learning alternativeskillsImprovedQuality ofLifeDesign/deliverprevention/interventionstrategies based onhypothesisMeet needs in a moresocially acceptablemanner(Knoster and Lapos, 1993)
5 “If you always do what You always get what you always got.” you have always done,You always get whatyou always got.”-Anonymous
6 What is the Continuum of Behavior Support? Students with Chronic/Intense ProblemBehavior (1-7%)Students At-Riskfor ProblemBehavior(5-15%)StudentswithoutSeriousProblemBehaviors(80-90%)Tertiary PreventionSpecialized IndividualInterventions(Individual Student System)Secondary PreventionSpecialized GroupInterventions(At-Risk System)Special EducationPrimary PreventionUniversal Interventions(School-Wide Systemand Classroom System)All Students in School(Horner, 1998)
7 Positive Behavior Support Views the system, setting, or skill deficiency as the problemAdjusts systems and settings and improves skillsIdentifies and teaches replacement skills and builds relationshipsRelies primarily on positive approachesHas a goal of sustained results achieved over timeIs developed by a collaborative teamMichigan Department of Education, 2001
8 A Systems Approach to School-wide PBS IndividualStudentNon-ClassroomClassroom
10 Four Defining Principles Three-tiered approach to PreventionPrimary (Universal), Secondary (Specialized Group), and Tertiary (Individual)Instructional EmphasisTeach social skills the same as academic skillsFunctional PerspectiveConsider the meaning of behaviorSustainability PriorityUse of practical interventions, multiple approaches, and on-going data collection
11 Steps to Implement PBS Set Priority and Mission Form a Leadership Team Examine Needs Through DataCollection and use of data in a problem solving process to drive team decisionsEstablish School-wide Behavioral ExpectationsClear expectations of positive behaviorsTeach Expectations Across SettingsProcedures for teaching behaviorsEncourage Expected BehaviorDevelop continuum of procedures for encouraging and reinforcing expected behaviorDiscourage Problem BehaviorMonitor Implementation and Progress(Washburn, Burrello, and Buckman, 2001)
12 How To Define Clear and Consistent Expectations Set 3-5 overarching expectations which apply to “all people in all settings”Determine how these expectations will look in each settingSet high, yet reasonable expectationsState positively and succinctlyT.Knoster, 2000
13 Bangor Area Middle School B-Be RespectfulA-Act AppropriatelyM-Manage Your Time and TasksS-Strive for SuccessT.Knoster, 2000
14 BAMS: Morning Areas Be respectful Act appropriately Manage your time Remain in designated areasAct appropriatelyKeep hands, feet, and objects to selfTalk quietlyManage your timeUse designated exitsExit in orderly mannerStrive to succeedKeep self and other safe by not rushing aroundHelp others when neededT.Knoster, 2000
15 BAMS: Cafeteria Be respectful Act appropriately Manage your time Wait patiently in lineFollow the flow of traffic (outside-in)Act appropriatelyKeep your food & utensils on trays or in mouthRaise hand to leave seatWalk at all timesManage your timeBe there on timeHave money/ticket ready to payStrive to succeedClean your area before you leaveT.Knoster, 2000
16 BAMS: Hallway Be respectful Act appropriately Manage your time Keep hallways clean and free of litterAct appropriatelyWalk at all timesClose locker quietlyKeep to the rightManage your timeGo to locker during designated timesBe in your class when the bell ringsStrive to succeedHelp others when neededGive others a chance to get into their lockerT.Knoster, 2000
17 Teaching…. we teach?…punish?” “If a child does not know how to read, we teach.If a child does not know how to swim, we teach.If a child does not know how to multiply, we teach.If a child does not know how to drive, we teach.If a child does not know how to behave,we teach?…punish?”Tom Herner (NASDE President) Counterpoint, 1998
18 TeachingModelGuided PracticeIndependent Practice
19 Define and Teach Behavior Teach ExpectationsMake rules publicArticulate and model to students whatis expectedPractice, Practice, PracticeKnoster,Tim. (2000) Positive Approaches to School-Wide Discipline.
21 Reinforcing and Responding to Behaviors Reinforce ExpectationsCatch students being goodCorrect or reteachRespond to behaviors of concernsKnoster,Tim. (2000) Positive Approaches to School-Wide Discipline.
22 PBS School-wide Needed When: Academic and social behavior goals not being achievedHigh rates of problem student behavior, resulting in loss of academic timeLack of universal procedures in schools to address problem behaviorsFamilies and the community are dissatisfied with the school’s response to problem behaviorTeachers express dissatisfaction with the current school-wide discipline plan
23 Why Implement PBS? School-wide PBS is a researched validated approach. PBS utilizes school-wide discipline procedures, in conjunction with specific student interventionsGrowing national concern regarding violence and aggressive behavior in schoolsResearch shows that suspension and expulsion are ineffective in changing student behavior
24 Benefits of PBSResearch demonstrates office referrals decrease between 40-60% (Sugai, 2001).PBS develops a school-community environment focused on safety and effective social behaviors in order to enhance the teaching and learning processPBS improves the overall climate of the school community, while improving student academic successPBS encourages the involvement of families and community members as partners with the school community.
25 Results of School-wide PBS Schools that have implemented school-wide PBS programs have seen:1/3 reduction of office referrals2/3 reduction of suspensions and expulsionsAn increase in attendanceAn increase in staff and student morale(Washburn, Burrello, & Buckman, 2001)
26 Websites & Contact Information:OSEP Center on PBISWebsite:RRTC - PBSWebsite:FL - PBS ProjectWebsite:SERCRegina Oliver