Presentation on theme: "Chapter Nine The Play Years: Cognitive Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Nine The Play Years: Cognitive Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College
How Young Children Think: Piaget and Vygotsky Piaget—Swiss developmentalist –believed young children were limited by their egocentric perspective egocentrism—Piaget’s term for type of centration in which child sees world solely from his/her personal perspective Vygotsky—Russian developmentalist –recognized how child’s social/cultural context helps shape his/her cognitive development
Piaget: Preoperational Thought Preoperational thought—Piaget’s term for cognitive development between 2 and 6 years –characterized by centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, and irreversibility
Centration—tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation Egocentrism or ego-centration— contemplation of the world exclusively from child’s personal perspective –empathy is an exception Obstacles to Logical Operations
Focus on appearance—ignores all attributes except appearance Static reasoning—assumes that the world is unchanging Irreversibility—fails to recognize that reversing a process can sometimes restore whatever existed before transformation Obstacles to Logical Operations, cont.
Conservation and Logic Thinking is intuitive rather than logical Conservation—principle that amount of substance is unaffected by changes in appearance –applied to liquids, numbers, matter, length –understanding develops after age 7, and then slowly and unevenly
Conservation and Logic, cont.
Vygotsky: Children as Apprentices One Theory –theory-theory—Gopnik’s term for the idea that children attempt to construct a theory to explain everything they see and hear
Children do not strive alone; their efforts are embedded in social context –parents guide young children’s cognitive growth in many ways present new challenges for learning offer assistance and instruction encourage interest and motivation Vygotsky: Children as Apprentices, cont.
Apprentice in thinking—child whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society Guided participation—process by which young children, with the help of mentors, learn to think by having social experiences and by exploring their universe Vygotsky: Children as Apprentices, cont.
How to Solve a Puzzle Guidance and motivation –structure task to make solution more attainable –provide motivation Guided participation –partners (tutor and child) interact –tutor sensitive and responsive to needs of child –eventually, because of such mutuality, child able to succeed independently
Scaffolding Scaffolding—sensitive structuring of child’s participation in learning encounters Zone of proximal development (ZPD)— skills too difficult for child to perform alone but that can be performed with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children –lower limit of ZPD can be reached independently –upper limit of ZPD can be reached with assistance –ZPD is a measure of learning potential
Scaffolding, cont. Private speech—internal dialogue when people talk to themselves through which new ideas are developed and reinforced –verbal interaction is a cognitive tool Social mediation—use of speech to bridge gap between child’s current understanding and what is almost understood
Theory of Mind We each have our own personal understanding of human mental processes, and child develops this too –complex interaction of human mental processes emotions thoughts perceptions actions
Emergence by Age 4 Social referencing Sudden understanding that mental phenomena may not reflect reality –people can be deliberately deceived or fooled
Contextual Influences on Theory of Mind Brain maturation (prefrontal cortex) General language ability An older sibling Culture that anticipates the future
Language Emergent literacy—skills needed to learn to read Is early childhood a sensitive or a critical period for language development? –ages 2 to 6 do seem to be a sensitive period—a time when a certain type of development (in this case, emergent literacy) occurs most rapidly
Vocabulary 2 to 6 olds learn average of 10 words per day Fast mapping—speedy and not precise way a child assimilates new words by mentally “charting” them into interconnected categories –logical extension, or application of newly learned word to other unnamed objects in same category, closely related to fast mapping –fast mapping aided by the way adults label new things for children
Fast mapping, cont. –children use basic assumptions about syntax and reference to fast map –children cannot comprehend every word they hear –difficulties may occur with words expressing comparisons with words expressing relationships of time and place Vocabulary, cont.
The grammar of a language includes the structures, techniques, and rules used to communicate meaning Young children learn grammar so well they tend to apply its rules when they should not, a tendency called overregularization –examples: plural nouns (“foots”), past tense (“breaked the glass”) Grammar
Learning Two Languages Two points of view –bilingualism is an asset, even a necessity, –child should become proficient in own 1st language How easy is it to be bilingual? –many 6-year-olds have difficulty pronouncing certain sounds –but auditory sensitivity helps young children master pronunciation over time, a much harder task if language learned after puberty
Best solution: children become “balanced bilinguals,” fluent in 2 languages –research confirms children can become equally fluent in 2 languages –easiest way for child to become bilingual is if parents speak 2 languages ideally, each parent represents 1 language and helps child with mastery sending child to preschool where 2nd language taught also effective Learning Two Languages, cont.
Early-Childhood Education Controversy over whether, when, and where
Many Types of Programs Distinct educational curricula have been developed –Maria Montessori (100 years ago) developed structured, individualized projects for poor children
Many newer programs are “child- centered” or “developmental” –use a Piaget-inspired model that allows children to discover at their own pace Alternative programs stress academic readiness –some readiness programs explicitly teach basic school skills Child-Centered and Readiness Programs
Reggio-Emilia Reggio-Emilia—a new form of early- childhood education pioneered in the Italian city of that name –children encouraged to master skills not normally seen until age 7 –artistic expression, exploration of the environment, and collaboration between parents and teachers encouraged
Early childhood is the prime learning period for every child and some learn even more The above has led to conclusion: nations should provide quality early education Head Start –has provided half-day education for millions of 3 to 5 year olds, boosting abilities and skills, at least temporarily and probably for longer Reggio Emilia, cont.
Three research projects have shown excellent longitudinal data –High/Scope (Michigan) –Abecedarian (North Carolina) –Child-Parent Centers (Chicago) Children in these programs have scored higher on math and reading achievement tests than other children from same backgrounds, schools, and neighborhoods Quality Learning
High-quality early education is associated with positive outcomes for all children –what is high-quality education? safety, adequate space, and equipment low adult-to-child ratio trained staff curriculum geared to cognitive development learning includes creative/constructive play Quality Learning, cont.