Presentation on theme: "The Early Years A Time to Talk"— Presentation transcript:
1The Early Years A Time to Talk Karyn JohnsSpeech Language Pathologist
2Why is talking important ? Socialisation toolTeaching toolFamily related factors – implications for teachers (how can we make a difference for some children…… )Evidence base for development of literacy
3Family influencesSES (income, education, health, housing) has an impact on language/literacy outcomesSo does the quality of parent-child interaction (more important thanthe toys/books)Strength of this interaction can over-ride the influence of the other background characteristics……
4Massive differences exist in the language experience of children before they enter school Talkative families – talk about what is happening, expand on children’s comments, take turns (strive for 5) = 48 million words heard before schoolNon-talkative families – talk about what to do, keep it simple and direct = 13 million wordsChildren from talkative families hear positive feedback 3 times more often than children in non-talkative families.Talking Point Feb 2008 ECA
5Start with this statement and then follow with examples of what the D and C mean (next lot of slides – plus might want to add more?) with activities they can do at home or in car that supports these skills. Don’t imagine using powerpoint unless you want but having as handout ???? Can still have activity stations – maybe have some commercial game and books on display to give ideas for buying gifts etc for their kids. Only concern is need some more info/guts for older grades …….Talk more Thursday
6Vocabulary & ReadingOrally tested vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of reading comprehension 10 years later. (Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997).Children with restricted vocabulary by third grade have declining comprehension scores in the later elementary years. Chall, J.S., , Jacobs, V.A., & Baldwin, L.E. (1990).
7ReminderSpeech (relates only to what the tongue and lips are doing with the sound)Language (Sentence length, content, vocabulary, sequence etc)Developmental milestones – critical stagesScreenerReferrals – red flags (including early pre-language foundation skills such as eating and dribbling see slide 10)
8Generally children will substitute another sound for one they are unable to say. Vowel sound development mostly occurs during baby babbling and are not usually mispronounced in mild-moderate speech delays. May be distorted in the speech of children with dyspraxia
9(relates to levels of questioning – see slides 20 – 23) Language What is it !!! Language includes both the receptive and expressive skills of listening and understanding words/sentences as well as using words and forming sentences to express feelings and ideas.Vocabulary (words and concepts) – fruit words; more; colours; size words; action words – cutSentence length – more more fruit pleaseGrammar – me want it Can I have itUnderstanding directions – pass me the red appleUnderstanding wh questions which one’s fruit(relates to levels of questioning – see slides 20 – 23)Retelling stories Hungry CaterpillarEmergent Literacy Rhyme; print awareness;So that’s just the speech or sounds part of communication….. The area of language is actually about the content of the specific message – the thought or emotion or idea the child wants to share……..The core of development that brings a baby to the brink of talking with words or language in their second year of life is the convergance or coming together of emotion, cognition and social connectedness with others. Children learn language as a way of connecting with others to share what they are thinking and feeling.The tools for communication and connecting are then specific language skills like…….With examples from the food theme ……
10RED FLAGSLess than 50 words at 2 yrs (not just nouns but actions and descriptive words also)Simple sentences – age 3 yrs (e.g. sentences containing a noun, verb, object – “He’s riding a bike”)Following 2 step commands – 3 yearsPoor grammar – 4 years (errors in sentence word order e.g. “That’s hims bike”)Unclear speech – age 4At risk, history factors (including chronic colds, ear infections, other siblings that may have been slow to talk)Raise red flags early and at the very least encourage parents to seek advice or have their child put on a wait list for further assessment. Reassurance that all is ok is just as valuable as detecting or confirming that a problem is present.
11Quick ScreenerDesigned to help gather evidence to speak to parents about a referralNot to be used on all childrenMost 4 year olds should complete it without difficultyProvides information about speech skills and two areas of language – vocabularyand comprehension of questions
12Supporting Language Development For all children …….Teacher/Adult’s role (promote teamwork and collaboratewith the parent/s, Speech Pathologist and the education and care setting)EnvironmentProgramThen for some children….(delayed; ESL…..)Inclusion strategies – direct teaching, focused goals, individual and small group learning opportunities, visual tools, specialist techniques and equipment
13The teachers roleWhat the adults talking should be doing …. – how we support languageWhen do we support – ALWAYS
14Teacher Interaction What does it look like? THE IDEAL interaction isResponsiveEngaging for childrenConversational (strive for 5)Inquiry based - Asks questionsTHE REALITYAsk yourself if you? wait for children’s turns? maintain topics over turns? use directive language? tend to use rhetorical/testing questionsAdults Extend conversation by:Using Thinking verbs(e.g. “I know…” “I remember…” Did you think that…”This is essential for narrative/story writing)Requesting descriptions &explanationsVarying vocabularyTalk beyond here-and-now? expand children’s comments? talk about past, future orexpand knowledgeHanen Centre
15Summary of Hanen’s Top 10 Talking Tips Child-Centred Strategies1. Wait & Listen2. Follow the Child’s Lead3. Be Face to Face4. Join in and PlayInteraction-Promoting Strategies5. Use a Variety of Questions6. Encourage Verbal Turn-TakingLanguage-Promoting Strategies7. Imitate (say back to them what they said to you)8. Label (Label actions too – not just naming nouns/things)9. Expand (e.g. ‘more’ – “More juice?”)10. Extend (e.g. ‘more juice’ – “more juice in the red cup?”)
16The Environment Visually supportive – see examples Routines Organised Variety of learning groupsOpportunities for child initiated activities – this way the child gets a chance to talk about their interests.
17Making Talking Visual Why ? How ? Talking is a fast stream of noise !!!!Highlights key wordsMaintains engagementAssists all to participateHow ?Props for songs and stories (e.g. ‘Listening Lucy’ poster showing how to sit for listening e.g. body still, eyes looking, mouth closed) (gloves/puppets, prop bag with items related to stories, oversized green glasses for frogs, spray bottle to create water for ‘rain’ songs)Visualise the Daily Routine (e.g. have visual prompts for show and tell rather than have the teacher ask questions, use magazine pictures to show ‘rest time’ ‘song time’ ‘lunch time’ etc)Signing (gesture)
18The program…. Explicit Linked Inquiry based Time for children to practiceIncludes child interests/topicsDevelopmentally appropriateEmbedded goals for children with additional needs
19Making the links when programming for language Make it visualChoosing a bookLanguage skillsActivitiesMake it visual – give it all you’ve got. Be animated; slow down; change voice, volume and intonation; gestureChoose a book that matches interest and developmental levelyoung – sturdy cardboard; plastic or cloth; clear illustrationsToddlers – board books with pictures; rhymes/songs; photo books; short in length, have few words; colourful and clear pictures; be easy to holdOlder toddlers/early preschool – repetitive text; themed books; simple stories with a plot; flap booksPreschool – more detailed story lines, allow prediction, fairy tales; talk explicitly about words/vocabulary; begin print awareness skills; plan follow up activitiesLanguage skills – your role is to engage the children, read slowly, allow children time to comment or questionModel the language and new words and give the children a chance to use the language;Make comments that help the children relate the book to their own experiences – if an interesting conversation is occurring then feel free to abandon the words and reading for a while
20Perceptual-language distance IIIIIIVperceptualMatchingPerceptionSelectiveAnalysis ofPerceptionReorderingPerceptionReasoningaboutPerceptionlanguagedistanceLabelLocateMatchRepeatDescribecharacteristics,functionsIdentifyperceptualdifferencesDescribe sceneInferSummarizeJudgment/evaluationID abstractcategoriesPredictExplainBlank, M., Rose, S.A., & Berlin, L.J. (1978). The language of learning: The preschool years.New York: Grune & Stratton.van Kleeck, A. (2003). Research on book sharing: Another critical look. In van Kleeck, S.A. Stahl,& E.B. Bauer (Eds.), On reading books to children. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
21Abstraction Levels Example Level 1 Requires matching perception (answer immediately availableLevel 2Requires selective analysis of perceptionExamplePoint to a Monarch butterfly.What do you see on Grandmother’s ofrenda (alter) ?What is a metate used for?What color are Monarchs?Ghost Wings by Barbara Joosse
22Abstraction Levels Level 3 Required reordering of perception (prediction or reworking thoughts)Level 4Requires reasoning about perception (reflect or interpret)ExamplesWhat is a migration?Name something that the girl would not put on the ofrenda?Why did the girl tremble when she was in bed?Why are scientists tagging butterflies?
23Question-Answer Relationship Help the children know how to answer the questions at each level by telling them where to find the answerWhere is the answer?Right there!Words are right there in the textThink and search!Words are in the text, but not spelled out for you.Think about what the author is saying.You and the author!Think about what you have learned and what is in the text.On your own!Answer is in your head.
25Phonological Skill Development Sensitivity to rhymingSyllable segmentationAwareness of onset-rimesm…an; f…an; r…anPhonemic awarenessSegmentation of words into phonemesPhoneme discriminationBlending of phonemesManipulation of phonemes
26Strategies and Resources for transition to literacy Cued ArticulationSpecial word bookSigning inAlphabet treeELF programSLP
27It’s exciting when things go wrong ! SabotageForgetfulness – no cup; equipment missingVisible but unreachableViolate order/sequence – change steps in game or use spoon upside downAssistance – lid too tightSabotage and provocation encourages children to ask questions; express emotions; challenge events Share thoughts; Request action or information; tell others……
29Learning more than one language !!! Important to understand families use and level of proficiency of the languages used in the home (be aware of speaking versus written language skills)Children have capacity to learn more than one language but it can be a slower processBenefit from visuals, repetition and individual follow upComplex process in identifying if child is having difficulties – seek specialist advice
30Websites Hanen www.hanen.org www.zerotothree.org & firstwords.fsu.edu Early childhood learning resources projectwww. speechpathologyaustralia.org.auEarly Childhood Australia – free fact sheetsResourcesQLD Health fact sheetsCommunities for Children InitiativeKaryn Johns –