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Chapter Seven Motivating Yourself and Others. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 - 2 Chapter Preview: Motivating Yourself and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Seven Motivating Yourself and Others. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 - 2 Chapter Preview: Motivating Yourself and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Seven Motivating Yourself and Others

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Chapter Preview: Motivating Yourself and Others Differences between internal and external motivators in the workplace Five characteristics of motives Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s motivation-maintenance theory

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Chapter Preview: Motivating Yourself and Others Theory X and Theory Y leadership styles How expectations influence motivation Contemporary motivation strategies Self-motivation strategies

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Complex Nature of Motivation Learning what motivates you is an essential part of knowing yourself Knowing what motivates others is basic to establishing and maintaining effective relationships Each person is motivated by different needs, at varying degrees, and at different times!

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Defined Influences that account for –initiation –direction –intensity –persistence of behavior Reason people do what they do

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Defined Internal drive that encourages us to achieve our goals Possible motives are endless: –Emotional –Social –Biological

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Is Two-Dimensional Internal motivation is self-granted and comes when something is meaningful or gives sense of purpose Examples: –Job contentment –Individual growth –Achievement

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Is Two-Dimensional External motivation is an action taken by another person Usually involves an incentive or anticipation of a reward Examples: –Money –Awards –Performance feedback

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Is Two-Dimensional Most people need both Organizations should strive to balance internal and external motivation

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Total Person Insight Dependent people need others to get what they want. Independent people can get what they want through their own efforts. Interdependent people combine their own efforts with the efforts of others to achieve their greatest success. Stephen R. Covey Author, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation to Satisfy Basic Desires Everything we experience as meaningful can be traced to one of sixteen basic desires or combination of desires The challenge is to determine which five or six (core values) are most important to you

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Figure 7.1 Sixteen Basic Desires in the Reiss Profile Source: Steven Reiss, Who Am I? (New York: Berkeley Books, 2000), pp

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Motivation Cycle Motivation cycle describes how most people satisfy a need Five steps in the motivational cycle

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Figure 7.1 Steps in the Motivational Cycle

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Characteristics of Motives The “why” of human behavior Five characteristics of motives: –individualistic –changing –may be unconscious –are often inferred –are hierarchical

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Influential Motivation Theories Many psychologists have added to our knowledge of what motivates people Basic problem is how to apply knowledge in the workplace Several theories are influential

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs People tend to satisfy their needs in a particular order Maslow called this order: “The Hierarchy of Needs” T heory has three main assumptions

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Maslow’s Assumptions People have a number of needs that require some measure of satisfaction Only unsatisfied needs motivate behavior Needs are ordered according to prepotency

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Figure 7.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Physiological Needs Survival, or lower-order needs Include needs for food, clothing, sleep, and shelter In a good economy, these needs rarely dominate

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Safety and Security Needs Reflect peoples’ desire for predictability in life Safety needs focus on protection from physical harm Security needs reflect the need to provide for oneself and one’s family

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Social or Belongingness Needs Involve emotional and mental well-being Needs for affection, a sense of belonging, and group identification are powerful Two major aspects –frequent, positive interaction with consistent group –framework of stable, long-term caring and concern

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Esteem Needs Self-esteem describes how you feel about yourself Esteem needs relate to a person’s self- respect and the respect he or she receives from others

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Self-Actualization Needs Represent a person’s need for growth Fulfilling potential or realizing fullest capacities as human beings Motivates by presence, others motivate by absence Rarely fully attained

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Maslow’s Theory Reconsidered Maslow’s theory has helped us understand behavior The hierarchy should not be taken too literally Research shows only two lowest needs are hierarchical Humans are motivated at any one time by a complex array of needs

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory Maintenance factors include things people consider essential to any job Include: salary, benefits, social relationships, working conditions, policies, and administration An absence of a maintenance factor can motivate

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory Motivational factors are benefits above and beyond the basic elements of a job Include: recognition, advancement, more responsibility They tend to increase worker satisfaction and can motivate employees to higher production levels

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory When motivational factors are not met, workers ask for increased maintenance factors Critics point to Herzberg’s assumption that all people are motivated only by higher-order needs

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Expectancy Theory Based on assumption that motivation is tied to whether one believes success is possible Perception is important element Expansion of self-efficacy concept

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Expectancy Theory Combining aspirations and expectations is even more powerful Self-fulfilling prophecy reflects a connection between your expectations of yourself and your behavior If you can conceive it and believe it, you can achieve it!

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Goal-Setting Theory Goals tend to motivate in four ways –provide purpose by directing attention to a specific target –encourage to make the effort to achieve something specific –requires sustained effort and therefore encourages persistence –forces connection between the dream and reality

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Goal-Setting Theory Goals play a key role in bringing purpose to life Goal-setting theory requires an understanding of the criteria for developing realistic goals –Should be difficult enough to challenge, but not impossible to reach

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Figure 7.3 A Model of How Goals Can Improve Performance Source: Robert Kreitner, Management (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000). Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Outlines assumptions of human nature in his book: The Human Side of Enterprise Divides assumptions into two categories: –Theory X –Theory Y

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Theory X: A Pessimistic View Assumes that people –do not really want to work and must be closely supervised –avoid responsibility –have little or no ambition Assumes rewards or punishments must be used

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Theory X Managers who operate under this theory believe –workers are paid to do a good job –management’s function is to supervise the work and correct employees if needed

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Theory Y: An Optimistic View Assumes work is as natural to people as play or rest Assumes people are capable of self- direction and will learn and accept responsibility

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Theory Y Managers who operate under this theory believe –people will become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so –a healthy, mutually supportive work climate based on trust, openness, and respect will influence workers to give more of themselves

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies The search for better ways to motivate employees has taken on a new level of importance International competition and the age of information require different and more effective motivation strategies

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies Strong connection between people- centered practices, and higher profits and lower turnover Organizations that put people first and recognize wants, needs, passions, and aspirations find merit in contemporary strategies

43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Job Design Job rotation allows employees to move through a variety of jobs, departments, or functions Cross-training workers –Facilitates career advancement –Allows a hedge against absenteeism –Reduces boredom

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Job Design Job enlargement means expanding an employee’s duties or responsibilities Motivation is often increased when workers are encouraged to take on new skills and responsibilities Can fill strategic gaps by training in several facets of work

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Job Design Job enrichment is an attempt to make a job more desirable and satisfying Two ways –assign more difficult tasks –grant more authority Employees can find solutions to problems

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Incentives Incentives are used to –improve quality –reduce accidents –increase sales –improve attendance –speed up production Organizations often use incentives to drive results

47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Incentives Intrapreneurship rewards the development of new ideas Encourage employees to pursue ideas at work The company provides funds, space, and time Cash bonuses or awards for ideas and development often given to employee

48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Learning Opportunities Learning opportunities can be a strong motivational force Education and training are critical to individual growth and opportunity Learning can help secure the future More powerful if perceived as leading to something that motivates individual

49 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Empowerment Empowerment means offering authority and responsibility to all ranks of an organization Can give employees a sense of pride, self-expression, and ownership Assumes employees want challenge and personal meaning from jobs Requires long-term commitment from top management

50 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivation Through Others’ Expectations Relationship between a person’s level of motivation and the expectations of others High expectations from others leads to high performance Supervisors can communicate high and low expectations

51 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Self-Motivation Strategies Go outside your comfort zone –Don’t be afraid to move outside comfort zone –Reflect on messages you’ve received from family and friends concerning success –Learn to showcase your abilities –Don’t be afraid to toot your own horn!

52 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Self-Motivation Strategies Build an immunity to cynicism –Cynicism is a destructive thinking pattern –Maintain an open mind –Avoid blaming management for every real or perceived problem –Take time to learn why changes are being made and try to separate fact from fiction –Remember that bad news gets more attention than good news

53 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Self-Motivation Strategies Strive for balance –Motivation decreases when we no longer have a sense of balance in our lives –Imbalance can happen when employees are not treated as “whole” people –Take time to reflect on what is important in your life –Take stock of your most satisfying experiences and then try to make the necessary adjustments

54 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Self-Motivation Strategies Take action –Take responsibility for the situation you are in and take action to improve it –Easier to blame others, but you have power to do something that others won’t or can’t

55 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Total Person Insight People who feel in control of life can withstand an enormous amount of change and thrive on it. People who feel helpless can hardly cope at all. Joan Borysenko Author, Minding the body, Mending the Mind

56 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Summary Motivation is a major component in human relations training Internal motivation occurs when a task or duty is meaningful External motivation is initiated by another person and is usually based on a reinforcement or reward

57 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Summary People are motivated by different things Motives –change over a lifetime –are individualistic –vary in strength and importance –can only be inferred

58 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Summary Maslow—motives vary in strength and importance and can be arranged in an order called a hierarchy Herzberg—workers desire more maintenance factors when motivational factors are not present

59 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Summary McGregor— Theory X and Theory Y, a pessimistic and an optimistic view of human behavior, respectively Expectancy theory—personal expectations have a powerful influence on motives Goal-setting theory—people become more focused and persistent with established, realistic goals

60 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Summary Contemporary theories include –Positive expectations –Job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment –Incentives such as intrapreneurship –Learning opportunities –Empowerment

61 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Summary Self motivation is important People need to –strive to go beyond their comfort zone –avoid cynicism –strive for balance between work and personal life –take responsibility –take action


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