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Creativity at work Torino September 25 2007 Han van der Meer.

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Presentation on theme: "Creativity at work Torino September 25 2007 Han van der Meer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creativity at work Torino September Han van der Meer

2 Basic skills 1. Gathering and interpreting data 2. Writing reports 3. 1 : 1 conversation (interviewing, consulting) 4. Presenting (to a group) 5. Facilitating interactive session

3 CPS is multi usable Product development Process development Market research Long Range planning Business Planning Technology transfer

4 Content Techniques for divergent stages 3. Creative person 4. Techniques for convergent stages 5.Setting up a session Foundations

5 present situation desired situation problem problem solving Basic model

6 Open and closed problems

7 Open problems Starting with: How to …? In what ways might we …? Wouldn’t it be nice if …?

8 Open questions now dream Free after Robert Fritz “Creating” 1991 in what ways might we how to wouldn’t it be nice if

9 Natural process idea solutions

10 Idea  solution Separate stages Different rules for each stage

11 The creative process preparation incubation illumination verification Wallas (1926)

12 CPS (Creative Problem Solving) model fact finding solution finding problem finding idea finding Osborn (1953) Buffalo, New York divergent option generation convergent option selection acceptance finding Osborne Parnes model

13 NIH NOT INVENTED HERE

14 Fact findingAcceptance finding Adjusted model Free after Geschka 2004 Content finding divergent convergent

15 Basic model content finding divergent convergent task result - focus on task - generate options - select options - share results - decide on next step

16 Parallel and/or serial X X

17 Content Techniques for divergent stages 1.Foundations Creative person 4. Techniques for convergent stages 5. Setting up a session

18 Basic model Fact finding Acceptance findingContent finding divergent convergent

19 Golden rules of diverging Defer judgement Strive for quantity Seek combinations Freewheel divergent convergent

20 YES, BUT Defer judgement YES, AND

21 Golden rules of diverging divergent convergent Defer judgement Strive for quantity Seek combinations Freewheel

22 FRUITS Generate in 1 minute as much

23 Extended effort Everyday Common Expected Unusual Silly Little apparent usefulness Novel combined with useful 1st wave2nd wave3rd wave Time Energy Source: Parnes, 1968

24 Goal of diverging as many original ideas as possible divergent convergent

25 Golden rules of diverging divergent convergent Defer judgement Strive for quantity Seek combinations Freewheel

26 Three main categories Associative methods Methods based on confrontation Systematic methods divergent convergent

27 Associative methods Methods based on creative confrontation Systematic methods divergent convergent Three main categories

28 Associative methods Basic principle Every person has different associations and associations chains Interaction will lead to chain reactions within a group

29 Associative methods Basic rules - Quantity breeds quality - Stepping stones - Defer judgement Important techniques - Brainstorming (Osborne) - Brainwriting (Brainwriting with Post-Its™; 6-3-5; Brainwriting Pool)

30 Brainstorm rules 1. Freewheel 2. Seek combinations 3. Defer judgement 4. Strive for quantity (repetition allowed)

31 How to improve a bath tub

32 Classical brainstorm What helped / was useful What hindered / was disturbing

33 Make Your Responses... Guidelines for using Post-its  Readable - Write them clearly, legibly and large enough to be seen Concise - Keep them brief, use “telegraphic” form Specific - Share the essence, one option per Post-it 

34 Associative methods Systematic methods divergent convergent Three main categories Methods based on creative confrontation

35 Basic principle Force an ‘AHA-experience’ through conscious alienation from the problem (excursion) and relating the strange elements to the problem (force fit) problem as given problem in other field solutions for other field new solutions forced fit excursion

36 Methods based on creative confrontation Basic rules Estrange from the familiar (excursion) familiarise the strange elements (forced fit)

37 Important techniques Random stimulus Hidden presumptions SCAMPER Focus points from analyses Guided Fantasy TRIZ

38 S ubstitute C ombine A dapt M odify Magnify Minify P ut to other uses E liminate R earange, Reverse Brainstorm Enhancers: SCAMPER

39 Associative methods Methods based on creative confrontation divergent convergent Three main categories Systematic Methods

40 Systematic methods Basic principle Every problem consists of sub-problems and is part of a larger problem Basic rules Systematic exploration, arrangement and clustering of elements of the problem Systematic exploration of relations between the problem and other problems or of relations within a problem

41 Systematic methods Important techniques Progressive abstraction (or Ladder of Abstraction) Morphology

42 Progressive abstraction Basic principle Regard a problem as a derivative of a problem of a higher level of abstraction

43 WHY HOW

44 Butter mountain Cheap surplus butterSell to Russia Too much milk Too many cows Too many farmers Cheese Dried milk School milk Stop bonus Export Stop bonus ? Example progressive abstraction

45 Why else?Why?Why else? How else?How?How else? NEW STATEMENT: INITIAL STATEMENT NEW STATEMENT: HOW?HOW ELSE? HOW?HOW ELSE? WHY?WHY ELSE? WHY?WHY ELSE? Ladder of Abstraction

46 Morphology Especially appropriate for complex technical problems Basic principles Divide the problem into parts (dimensions) Find alternative solutions for the main dimensions Find total solutions by combining Example: packaging of fruit juice

47 Example Morphological box DimensionAlternatives Material Form Opening Outside coating Glass Rectangle Screw top Printed Tin Triangle Puncture Plastic Paraffined cardboard Bag Tear open Aluminium Solution: Tetrapack How to pack fruit juice

48 Example Morphological box DimensionAlternatives Material Form Opening Outside coating Glass Rectangle Screw top Printed Tin Triangle Puncture Plastic Paraffined cardboard Bag Tear open Aluminium Solution: ? How to pack fruit juice

49 Content 1.Foundations 2. Techniques for divergent stages Tecnniques for convergent stages 5.Setting up a session Creative person

50 Product Process Person Pressure 4 P’s of Creativity

51 KAI

52

53 As sound, conforming, safe, predictable, inflexible, wedded to the system, intolerant of ambiguity. Tend to accept the problems as defined with any generally agreed constraints. Prefer to generate a few novel, creative, relevant and acceptable solutions. Prefer well-established, structured situations. Essential for the ongoing functions High adaptor is seen as:

54 Glamorous, exciting, unsound, impractical, risky, abrasive, threatening the established system and creating dissonance. Reject the generally accepted perception of problems and redefine them. Produce numerous ideas, some of which may not appear relevant. Prefer less structured situations. Essential in times of change or crisis High Innovator is seen as:

55

56 A I A - I and mental models

57 Content 1.Foundations 2. Techniques for divergent stages 3. Creative person 4. 5.Setting up a session Techniques for convergent stages

58 Convergent stages divergent convergent

59 The ideas mountain Source: Stevens & Burley, Industrial Research Institute, plain ideas (unwritten) 300 introduced ideas 125 small projects 15 significant developments 8 largest developments 4 launches 1 success

60 Number of ideas time 1 successful product introduction development evaluation 1e screening Mortality curve from 3000 to 1

61 Objective selection tools Number of ideas time normal - fast selection / cost reduction - success improvement want

62 Number of ideas time financial techniques weighting techniques argumentative techniques intuitive techniques Stages and techniques

63 1. Use affirmative judgement 2. Have action in mind 3. Consider the “mother” criteria - Novelty - Effectivity - Feasibility Golden rules of converging

64 Intuitive techniques hits clustering 1st screening intuition, gut feeling

65 Clustering Look for “common” ideas (resemblance) Put them in categories (clusters) Spontaneous (no lists/theories from books) Rest category = Other Restate theme (cluster) with attractive title

66 An Option “Hits” You When It Is... Characteristics of a “Hit” On target Relevant Interesting Clear Intriguing Fascinating Workable “Right on the money” Or When It... “Sparkles” at you Feels right Solves the problem Goes in the right direction Source: Treffinger 1987

67 Argumentative techniques 3.1 itemised response / ALUo hurdless (must, should, extra) evaluation

68 ALUo Advantages Limitations Unique properties Overcoming Limitation Action Plan First Step Source: Isaksen, Dorval, Treffinger (1994)

69 Hurdless Hurdle 1: Pass the Must criteria Hurdle 2: Pass the Should criteria Hurdle 1: Pass the Bonus criteria

70 Weighting techniques multicriteria analyse success / fail factors feasibility study Newprod development

71 Multi criteria analyses

72 Research Cooper Theoretical background Consulting experience Great number of questions Emperical study 100 Canadian companies 103 success - cases 95 fail - cases 48 relevant questions ) Newprod 8 clusters (factors) ) model

73 Success factors innovation projects 1. Product superiority37% 2. Project / company fit22% 3. Market need, size15% 4. Newness to the firm11% 5. Organisation strength 9% 6. Competitive 6% Source: Cooper R.G., 1992; Van der Meer 1996

74 3.1 Financial techniques Return On Investment Net Present Value introduction

75 Tools number of ideas time hits clustering ALUo Newprod Net Present Value Information Best practise selection time Information / ideas

76 Content 1.Foundations 2. Techniques for divergent stages 3. Creative person 4.Techniques for convergent stages 5. Setting up a session

77 1.People 2.Process 3. Techniques, Tools 4. Organisation 5. Materials Fact finding Acceptance findingContent finding divergent convergent

78 People: 3 basic roles Problem owner Provides the problem; involve in the actual idea generation session? Facilitator Supervises the process, systematically records all results and other relevant information Resource group Bring in new information/experience; Source of brainpower; Platform for change Information finding Acceptance finding Content finding divergent convergent

79 Interactions between 3 roles Presents initial situation; explains the task Chooses 1-3 problem statements, assigns priorities and designates reasons as well as emphasis. Choose ideas and indicate: desires weak points positive reasons next step (action plan) Problem owner Facilitator Generate problem statements How to…? 1. Generate 50 - n00 idea proposals 2. Select appealing ideas Go to next step Resource Group Free after Synectics

80 Facilitator  probleem owner Intake: - Task appraisal - Choice of tools task diverging converging results - Explanation background task - Examples off wanted outcomes - Check on progress - Enough options to consider - Evaluation of results - Next step - Check on progress

81 Process Form Storm Norm Perform

82 Helps 1. Dissatisfaction with the status quo 2. A shared vision of a better state 3. Knowledge of practical first steps Hindrances 1. Economic costs of changing 2. Psychological costs Acceptance finding: How to stimulate change Source: Beckhard, R., Harris, R.T., Organizational Transitions: Managing complex change; Addison-Wesley; 2e druk; Californië; 1987

83 Mastering the technique leads to good results; practice and experience is required Choice of techniques based on: - stage in process - personal preference Techniques

84 Basic design Task: Ladder of Abstraction Divergent: tools to facilitate the 3 waves Convergent: - Hits - Clustering - ALUo Preparing action next step Information findingacceptance finding content finding divergent convergent

85 Extended effort and techniques Brainstorming with Post-its™ Creative confrontation Go with the flow 1st wave2nd wave3rd wave Time Energy Source: Parnes, 1968

86 Location f.i. leave normal environment Devote enough time to preparation and elaboration of the session: 2:1:2 ‘Warming up’ to build up trust within the group and between group and facilitator Devote enough time to the problem definition phase Explore logistics Organisation

87 Flipcharts + markers Post-its / coloured markers Paper + pens Coloured stickers Etc. Materials

88 Ideas pay Ideas nurtured per day Financial Performance Number of ideas Top Moderate Poor Source: PriceWaterhouseCoopers 2001 LowHigh

89 4 times counter intuitive 1. Role rigidity (problem owner, facilitator, resource group) 2. Separate 4 stages - tasks - divergent - convergent - result / action 3. Divergent stage: more options 4. Convergent stage: affirmative judgement

90 Additional reading 1 The innovators handbook; problem solving, communication and teamwork Vincent Nolan Sphere Books Limited, 1989 Creativity at Work Tudor Rickards Management Library, 1991 Problem solving in Business and Management Michael J. Hicks Chapman & Hall, New York, 1991

91 Lateral Thinking Edward de Bono Word Lock, 1970 Synetics, the Development of Creative Capacity W.J.J. Gordon Harper & Row, New York, 1961 Creating a shared vision Marjory Parker Dialog International, Clarendon Hills, USA, 1990 Adapters and innovators Michael Kirton (editor) Routledge, London, 1994 Additional reading 2

92 Creative Approaches to Problem Solving Scott G. Isaksen, K. Brian Dorval Donald J. Treffinger Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Principles: TRIZ Keys to Technical Innovation TRIZ Tools, Volume I Genrich Altshuller Technical Innovation Center, Inc., 2001 Additional reading 3

93

94 Further information

95 China Creative Studies Institute President: Mr. Yuan Zhang – du 665 Ti Yu Hui Road (east) BeiShiHuan XiLu , SHANGHAI Further information


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