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Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-1 Chapter 13 Leading to Victory.

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Presentation on theme: "Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-1 Chapter 13 Leading to Victory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-1 Chapter 13 Leading to Victory

2 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-2 Leadership Research As A. Kent and P. Chelladurai note, “While leadership has been an immensely popular area of study in industrial and organizational psychology, research on the topic of sport management has been largely focused on coaches rather than administrators.

3 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-3 Coaching Requires Leadership Management professor Dr. Judith Neal (University of New Haven) commented that what we once called coaching is now more appropriately called leadership.

4 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-4 Managing Versus Leadership Leaders influence people to work to achieve the organization’s objectives. We frequently use manager and leader interchangeably. We shouldn’t, because they are not necessarily one and the same. Leading is a management function (remember, there are four—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling).

5 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-5 Leadership Styles Leadership style is the combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use to interact with employees. In the 1930s, before behavior theory became popular, researchers at the University of Iowa studied leadership styles of managers and identified three basic styles.

6 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-6 Three Leadership Styles Autocratic: The manager makes the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises them—basically Theory X behavior. Democratic: The manager encourages employee participation in decisions, works with them to determine what to do, and doesn’t supervise them closely—Theory Y behavior. Laissez-faire: The manager lets employees go about their business without much input—that is, employees decide what to do and take action, and the manager does not follow up.

7 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-7 Leadership Grid The Leadership Grid uses the same dimensions as the two-dimensional model; in the Grid, these dimensions are called concern for production and concern for people. The Leadership Grid identifies the ideal leadership style as having a high concern for both production and people.

8 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-8 Leadership Grid Styles (1,1) Impoverished leaders show low concern for both production and people. They do the minimum required to remain employed. (9,1) Authority-compliance leaders show a high concern for production and a low concern for people. They focus on getting the job done by treating people like machines. (1,9) Country club leaders show a low concern for production and a high concern for people. They strive to maintain a friendly atmosphere without much regard for production. (5,5) Middle of the road leaders balance their concerns for production and people. They strive for performance and morale levels that are minimally satisfactory. (9,9) Team leaders show a high concern for both production and people. They strive for maximum performance and maximum employee satisfaction.

9 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-9 Creating a 9,9 Situation Joe Torre of the New York Yankees has come close to creating an overall 9,9 situation. The players are happy to play for the Yankees, and the team has been very productive on and off the field.

10 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-10 Current Leadership Research Current researchers focus on which behaviors make top-notch managers outstanding, even though the managers’ individual leadership styles may vary dramatically. These researchers have identified charismatic, transformational, transactional, and symbolic leaders.

11 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-11 Charismatic Leaders Charismatic leaders inspire loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance. Charismatic leaders have a vision and a strong personal commitment to their goals; they communicate their goals to others, display self- confidence, and are viewed as able to make the radical changes needed to reach the goals.

12 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-12 Charismatic Leaders In our media-driven age, charismatic fits many contemporary leaders, including Michael Jordan (basketball), Sammy Sosa (baseball), Ronaldo (soccer), and Brett Favre (football). Researchers A. Kent and P. Chelladurai found that charismatic leaders have a strong influence on employee commitment to the organization.

13 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-13 Transformational Leaders Transformational leaders create significant changes as they foster high-quality relationships and commitment from their employees Pat Gillick of the Seattle Mariners is a transformational leader. When he arrived in 1999, the Mariners had just lost its three best and most popular players. Gillick was brought in to inspire the team and lead it to winning. He succeeded by finding players who were positive role models and who worked well together. Gillick also brought an attitude that winning should be fun—as he says, “Be positive. Be upbeat. Be supportive.

14 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-14 Transactional & Symbolic Leaders Transactional leaders emphasize exchange. “Exchange” is about rewarding jobs well done. Symbolic leaders establish and maintain a strong organizational culture. An organization’s workforce learns the organization’s culture (shared values, beliefs, and assumptions of how workers should behave in the organization) through its leadership.

15 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-15 Vroom and Yetton In the 1970s, Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton attempted to bridge the gap between leadership theory and managerial practice by developing a normative leadership model. Normative leaders use one of five decision-making styles appropriate for the situation. Vroom and Yetton identified the five leadership styles. Two are autocratic (AI and AII), two are consultative (CI and CII), and one is group-oriented (GII).

16 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-16 Coaching Styles The late Vince Lombardi, the legendary football coach, often used AI-style leadership. Does this style work today? It depends. Pat Summitt’s leadership style (Chapter 12) is quite similar to Lombardi’s. So is Bill Parcells’s, who took the New York Giants to Super Bowl victories in 1986 and Other coaches prefer GII-style leadership. Phil Jackson, coach of the NBA-champion Chicago Bulls and Los Angeles Lakers, uses Zen-like philosophy to motivate and train his players. He has been blessed with superstar players, but he has also used a group attitude to produce results.

17 Lussier/Kimball, Sport Management, First Edition Copyright © 2004, by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning PPT13-17 Substitutes for Leadership Substitutes for leadership eliminate the need for a leader. In certain circumstances, three characteristics can counteract or neutralize the efforts of leaders or render them unnecessary. Characteristics of subordinates Characteristics of the task Characteristics of the organization


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