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Transforming The School Counseling Profession

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1 Transforming The School Counseling Profession
CHAPTER 2: The ASCA National Model: Developing a Comprehensive, Developmental School Counseling Program Transforming The School Counseling Profession Fourth Edition Bradley T. Erford

2 The ASCA National Standards
The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) published the National Standards for School Counseling Programs in 1997. The ASCA National Standards were created to: Provide school counselors with a framework for how to develop and implement a comprehensive, developmental program. Help shape the identity of professional school counselors.

3 The ASCA National Model
Building upon the ASCA National Standards, leaders in the school counseling profession developed the ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs. The ASCA National Model serves as an exemplar to guide school counselors in how to implement the National Standards in their schools. The national model’s framework exhorts school counselors to address the needs of all students, rather than a select few.

4 The ASCA National Model
The ASCA National Model is comprised of four overarching components and four fundamental themes. Components: foundation, delivery, management, and accountability. Themes: leadership, advocacy, systemic change, and collaboration/teaming.

5 Themes of the ASCA National Model
Leadership Professional school counselors strive to: Close the achievement gap. Ensure that all students have access to challenging academic coursework. Enact system-wide changes.

6 Themes of the ASCA National Model
Advocacy Professional school counselors strive to: Assess the needs of the student population. Address the needs of all students. Remove any barriers to student success. Set high expectations for student achievement.

7 Themes of the ASCA National Model
Collaboration and Teaming Professional school counselors strive to: Work collaboratively with stakeholders (i.e, parents, teachers, administrators, community organizations) to meet the needs of all students. Develop effective working relationships with stakeholders.

8 Themes of the ASCA National Model
Systemic Change Professional school counselors strive to: Identify areas in need of improvement through data-driven programming. Advocate for school-wide changes (e.g., instructional practices, school philosophy, policies, procedures) to help increase student achievement.

9 Program Foundation Addresses the “what” of the school counseling program. Outlines what every student should know and be able to do as a result of the school counseling program. Includes standards and competencies in the three school counseling domains: academic, career, and personal-social.

10 Program Foundation Includes the school counseling program’s philosophy and mission statement. Philosophy: A set of beliefs about education and the ability of students to learn that provides a vision for the program (should be created in conjunction with stakeholders). Mission Statement: Describes the overarching goals of the program and is aligned with the individual school’s and school system’s missions.

11 Delivery System Addresses the “how” of the school counseling program.
Includes the following elements: guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive services, and systems support. Components of the delivery system can include both direct and indirect services. Direct services: individual counseling, small group counseling, and classroom guidance. Indirect services: support direct services.

12 Delivery System: Core Curriculum
Provides preventative services to large groups: Classrooms Parent workshops Peer helper programs Large events (i.e., senior events) Transition orientation for new students Usually delivered by the professional school counselor or a classroom teacher in consultation with the counselor. Classroom guidance units are age-appropriate, sequential, and usually centered around a topic or theme.

13 Delivery System: Individual Student Planning
Encourages school counselors to: Help students, individually or in small groups, plan and monitor their academic progress. Use test information and other data to help students set and achieve immediate (e.g., course selection) and long-term (e.g., college, career) goals.

14 Delivery System: Responsive Services
Includes: Individual counseling Group counseling Consultation Referral Crisis response Peer facilitation

15 Delivery System: Responsive Services
Individual counseling: Meets both reactive and proactive student needs. Professional school counselor’s should not counsel so many students individually that the rest of the student body is shortchanged.

16 Delivery System: Responsive Services
Small group counseling: Meets both reactive and proactive student needs. Often offered throughout the school-year to help students who have common needs through explorations of their attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and feelings. Is time and cost-efficient. Outcome research has indicated that group counseling can be effective, in particular when it targets academic or personal development issues.

17 Delivery Systems: Responsive Services
Crisis response Involves responding to acute situations that require immediate intervention. Often includes individuals and resources beyond the professional school counselor. Purpose: to diffuse a situation, initiate a healing process, and assist community members affected by a situation.

18 Delivery System: Responsive Services
Consultation and collaboration: An indirect service. Involves collaboration with stakeholders to help address students’ needs. A process of directly working with a second party (consultee) to help a third party (the student). Goal of consultation: to help consultees learn information or improve skills that will enable them to interact more effectively with others.

19 Delivery System: Responsive Services
The consultation process: Identify a purpose. Establish a goal. Plan strategies to meet the goal. Assign responsibilities to carry out the goal.

20 Delivery System: Responsive Services
Referral Involves obtaining the help of other professionals (e.g., school psychologist, school social worker, community agency) to meet students’ needs.

21 Delivery System: Systems Support
Provides support in the administration and management of the school counseling program. Includes: program management and operations, data analysis, professional development, consultation, collaboration, and teaming.

22 Delivery System: Systems Support
Program Management and Operations The administrative and planning tasks needed to create and deliver school counseling activities. Data Analysis Analyzing student data. Program evaluation.

23 Delivery System: Systems Support
Professional Development In-service training. Postgraduate education. Membership in professional associations. Consultation, Collaboration, and Teaming Partnering with parents, teachers, and community agencies. Parent outreach. Participating on committees and advisory councils.

24 Management System Addresses the “when,” “why,” and “on what authority” of the school counseling program. Includes: management agreements, advisory council, use of data, action plans, program calendar, and distinctions between appropriate and inappropriate uses of time.

25 Management System Annual Agreements:
Documents who is responsible for various aspects of the school counseling program. Advisory Council: The School Counseling Program Advisory Committee (SCPAC) Serves as a sounding board and steering committee: helps locate funding, make recommendations, and review accountability measures and data. Should convene at least twice each year. Should include influential members and decision-makers (e.g., principal, school administrators). Influential parents, teachers, resource persons (e.g., school psychologist, school social worker), and community leaders should be invited to join.

26 Management System Use of Data
Collect and disaggregate data to identify systemic issues that interfere with equity in achievement. Monitor student progress. Action Plans Detail strategies for achieving an important outcome. Two types of action plans: school guidance curriculum action plans and closing the gap action plans.

27 Management System Calendars
Weekly, monthly, and annual calendars can be used to: Plan for essential elements of the school counseling program. Advertise events and services. Demonstrate a school counselor’s work to the principal. Use of Time Encourages professional school counselors to use time logs to determine how much time they spend providing various services. Details both appropriate and inappropriate uses of time for school counselors.

28 Management System Appropriate Activities Inappropriate Activities
Designing individual student academic programs. Registering and scheduling all new students. Counseling students with excessive tardiness or absenteeism. Signing excuses for students who are tardy or absent. Counseling students with disciplinary problems. Performing disciplinary actions. Collaborating with teachers to present guidance curriculum lessons. Teaching classes when teachers are absent. Interpreting student records. Maintaining student records. Ensuring that records are kept in accordance with state and federal regulations. Clerical record keeping. Assisting the school principal in identifying and resolving student issues. Assisting with duties in the principal’s office.

29 Accountability System
Answers the question: “How are students different as a result of the program?” Includes: results reports, performance standards, and performance audits. Results Reports: Outcomes assessments that document changes (e.g., academic performance changes as a result of participation in a study-skills group).

30 Accountability System
Performance Standards: All local and job expectations to help assess one’s skill in implementing a comprehensive, developmental school counseling program. Performance Audits: Conducted to ensure that the school counseling program aligns with some set of standards.

31 Roles of Other School Personnel in the School Counseling Program
The counselor is but one player in a team effort. Teachers: Can serve as valuable allies, as well as referral sources for children in need of counseling services. Must be properly prepared and motivated to help students meet the school counseling program’s competencies. Failure to establish positive working relationships with teachers can affect access to that teachers’ students and limit a counselor’s ability to implement the classroom guidance curriculum.

32 Roles of Other School Personnel in School Counseling Program
Resource Teachers: Possess special expertise that make them invaluable consultants and referral sources. Connecting with these teachers ensures that all students receive the benefit of the school counseling program. Principals and Assistant Principals: Contribute to many important facets of the school counseling program, such as facilitating a needs assessment and program evaluation. Defend the counselor from role diffusion and non-counseling activities.

33 Roles of Other School Personnel in School Counseling Program
School Psychologists: Help address the needs of a school’s most serious cases. School Social Workers: Invaluable sources of information on families and communities. Serve as liaisons between the school and public health facilities.

34 Roles of Other School Personnel in School Counseling Program
School Nurses: A valuable ally to school counselors on developmental matters (i.e., hygiene, personal safety, and physical and sexual development). Can serve as referral and information sources. Secretaries: Often among the first to encounter parents and students in crisis. The manner in which secretaries respond to situations speaks volumes about the school climate.

35 Conclusion The ASCA National Model has provided a unified identify for the profession and improved the delivery of services. Professional school counselors must work in partnership with stakeholders and other school personnel to best meet students’ diverse needs.

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