Presentation on theme: "Professional Ethics in Counselling Professor Craig Jackson"— Presentation transcript:
1Professional Ethics in Counselling Professor Craig Jackson Head of PsychologyBCU
2Ethics Ethos - moral character or custom Morality comes from the Latin word “moralis”- custom or mannerEthics is a generic term for various ways of understanding and examining the moral life”Beauchamp & Childress, 1994Morality is concerned with perspectives of right and proper conduct
3Morality There is nothing divine about morality a purely human affair If people are good only because they fear punishment, and hope for reward, then we are a sorry lot indeedWhat the individual can do is to give a fine example, and to have the courage to uphold ethical values ... in a society of cynics (Albert Einstein) “People are responsible as the primary agents in determining their own behaviour” (Evans 2001)
4Consider your own Morality Is your moral code the same as your parents’ or “significant other”?In what way has it changed since you left your family of origin? On what basis do you decide what is right or wrong? i.e. religion/legal groundsHow do you decide when to be honest or when it is wrong to steal?; are these absolute values for you or are they always relative to each particular situation? Man does not strive to be good; the good is what it is human to strive for (Perls et al, 1989, 335)Bracket own values and morals and explore the phenomenology of the client.
610 personal qualities of the ethical therapist Empathy - the ability to communicate understanding of another person’s perspectiveSincerity – a personal commitment to consistency between what is professed and what is doneIntegrity – honesty and coherenceResilience – the capacity to work with client’s concerns without being personally diminishedRespect – showing appropriate esteem to others and their understanding of themselves
710 personal qualities of the ethical therapist Humility – the ability to assess accurately and acknowledge one’s own strengths and weaknessCompetence – the effective development of skills and knowledgeFairness – the consistent application of appropriate criteria to inform decisions and actionsWisdom - possession of sound judgement that informs practiceCourage – the capacity to act in spite of known fears, risks and uncertainty
8Values of Counselling & Psychotherapy Respect for human rights and dignityEnsuring the integrity of client practitioner relationshipsEnhancing the quality of professional knowledge and its applicationAlleviating personal distress and sufferingFostering a sense of self that is meaningful to the person’s concerned
9Values of Counselling & Psychotherapy Increasing personal effectivenessEnhancing the quality of relationships between peopleAppreciating the variety of human experience and cultureStriving for fair and adequate provision of counselling and psychotherapy services
10Ethical Principles – Beuachamp & Childress 1994 1. Respect for individual autonomy – right of another to choose and act in accordance with his or her wishes or beliefs2. Beneficence – a commitment to benefiting the client3. Non-maleficence – not to harm others intentionally4. Justice – a fair distribution of services within society Thompson (1990) added a further two principles 5. Fidelity – honouring the promises upon which the trust between client and counsellor is founded 6. Self-interest – the counsellor’s entitlement to all the preceding principles (Bond, 2000).
12Ethical Problem Solving 6 stages Methods taken from – Standardsand Ethics for counselling inaction (Bond, 1993)Six step processProduce a brief description of problem or dilemma Can have effects of clarifying, reducing even removing the difficulty.Whose dilemma is it anyway?
13Ethical Problem Solving 3. Consider all ethical principles and guidelines Questions to be considered What actions are prohibited by law What actions are required to be performed by law What are the people involved, including yourself, entitled by lawIn the absence of any relevant guidelines or decisive legal advise you can consider Non malificence – what will cause least harm Respect for autonomy – what maximises the opportunities for everyone involved to implement his or her choices?4. Identity all possible courses of action Brainstorm possibilities
14Ethical Problem Solving 5. Select the best of actions (Holly & Stradler 1986)Universality – would my chosen course of action berecommended to others? Would I condone this course ofaction if t was done by someone else?Publicity – could I explain my chosen course of action toothers would I be willing to have my actions and rationaleexposed to the scrutinyJustice – Would I do the same for other clients in a similarSituation. Would I do the same if the client were well knownand or influential?If answers are No than reconsider your course of action.
15Ethical Problem Solving 6. Evaluate the outcome Learn from experiences Was the outcome as youhopedHad you considered allrelevant factors with theresult?