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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 SEP-S08071-CP1-03 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP –SBI071-CP1-UN1

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Credits  Academic Inputs by Sonali Alkari Faculty YCMOU Nagpur Centre, Faculty LAD college P.G. D of Biotechnology Research officer Ankur Seeds Pvt Ltd

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe characteristics of computers Describe generations of computers Discuss technology which rules the different generations of computers

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Characteristic of Computers-1  Computers are electronic devices which can input, store and manipulate data and output information in a desired form.  Computers have some common features which are briefly presented below.  Speed: A computer can do mathematical operations move and copy documents at a speed in the order of million or billion instructions per second.  Reliability: Computer output is generally very reliable subject to the conditions that the input data is correct and the program instructions should be reliable and correct. 6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Characteristic of Computers-2  Storage capability: As various computer media can store millions of characters of data in a condensed form, there is a tremendous saving in the storage area required to maintain the vital records necessary in a business environment.  Accuracy: Computers are very accurate. They can perform their millions of operations with great accuracy as their circuits have no mechanical parts to wear and malfunction. 7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Computer Generations  The first electronic computing machine known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator) was introduced in 1940s.  The first digital computer was developed during  Later on various types of computers were developed which different in speed, memory, input and output devices, size and programming techniques.  Computers developed after ENIZC have been classified into five generations, viz (1) first generation,(2) second generation, (3) third generation(4) fourth generation and (5) fifth generation.

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 1 st Generation( ): VacuumTubes  The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.  They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.  First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time.  Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.  The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.  The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 2 nd Generation( ): Transistors  Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers.  The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s.  The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors.  Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.  Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 2 nd Generation( ):Transistors  Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words.  These computers are smaller, requires lesser space and power, generate lass heat and are faster than first generations.  High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.  These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.  The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 3 rd Generation : Integrated Circuits  The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.  Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.  Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 3 rd Generation : Integrated Circuits  The integrated circuits (IC chips)are used as main electronic components.  External storage device are like second generation computers.  These computers are still more reliable, compact and faster.  They generate less heat and require less power than second generation computers.  Moreover, maintenance is very low.  Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. 13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 4 th Generation-1971-Present: Microprocessors  The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.  What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.  The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip.  In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 4 th Generation-1971-Present: Microprocessors  Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.  As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.  Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. 15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. 5 th Generation : Present & Beyond: Artificial Intelligence  Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.  The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.  Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come.  The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. What You Learn…  You have learnt : Computers are electronic devices which can input, store and manipulate data and output information in a desired form. Speed, accuracy, Reliability, storage capacity are the main characters which makes computer a versatile tool. Computers developed after ENIZC have been classified into five generations, viz (1) first generation,(2) second generation, (3) third generation(4) fourth generation and (5) fifth generation.

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Critical Thinking Questions oDescribe in details characteristics of computers. oDescribe in details different generations of computers till date. 18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Hints For Critical Thinking Question 1.Give the list of characters which makes computers as essential tool. 1.Number of generation, their tenure and technology used 19

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Study Tips:1  Book1 Title: Security Warrior Author: Cyrus Peikari, Anton Chuvakin Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Inc.  Book2 Title: Fundamentals of computers Author: V. Rajaraman Publisher: Prentice~Hall of India

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Study Tips:2  Book3 Title: Fundamental of computers Hardware Author: M.S.Bhatia Publishers: Khanna book publishing  Book4 Title: Bioinformatics Author: C.V. Murthy. Publishers: Himalaya PublishingHouse, India

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Study Tips Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. End of the Presentation Thank You


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