Religion is a systematic set of expressions which reflect the ultimate order, meaning, and possible transformation of existence for people.
Three elements in ALL religions: 1. Verbal (stories) 2. Practice (baptism, communion, meditation...) 3. Social ( prayer service, bible study, parties...)
Three attributes/characteristics of god 1. omnipotent: has unlimited authority and influence 2. omniscient: has infinite awareness, understanding and insight 3. omnipresent: is in all places at all times
Deism: god does NOT care Theism: god IS caring and personal Anthropomorphic: humans look like god Monolotry: one main god, with lots of lesser gods
Western Religions: focus on morals of individuals, based on the history of humanity. (Traditions) IslamJudaismChristianity
Eastern Religions: focus on moral living of each individual’s life journey. Hinduism Buddhism Shinto Daoism Confucianism
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Athiest One who is without belief in god or gods Will not deny gods exist because in denial it actually confirms the possibility that a god may exist
Agnostic One who believes that a god exists Does not practice a religious doctrine Undecided, wants proof
Ignostic One without belief in god or gods Avidly denies the existence of a god
Monotheism Belief in the existence on ONLY one god
Hinduism “Hinduism is not a religion, but a way to live your daily life.”
Hinduism Symbol is the AUM Monotheistic-Monolotry (viewed as polytheistic) Worship takes place in home, in a temple, or near water Sacramental food (prasad) is blessed & eaten during puja (worship)
Hinduism Has no one founder or single founding event, no prophets named: all people are prophets; mystics Began approx. 4000 B.C.E. Began in the Indus Valley in India Followers are called Hindu The word “hindu” means “Indian”
Hindu Holy Book- Vedas ( means “knowledge”) Rigveda (oldest of books) 1500- 1200 B.C.E. Includes warrior legends, hymns or songs Samaveda, Yajurveda, Athraveda All 4 books together make up the Samhitas
More Holy Books: Brahmanas (explanations of ceremonies) Aranyakas (stories) Upanishads (“sitting near”- advice from mystics) Bhagavad Gita (an epic poem: conversation between Prince Arjuna & Lord Krishna)
Religious Symbol Called the “AUM” Symbol of supreme reality Water, infinite life, lamp (learning, life, enlightenment…)
Monotheistic/Polytheistic/Monolotry Mono- One God: Brahman Poly- Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Krishna, Rama, Shakti, and about 2,000 others Monolotry: Brahman: 3 parts: Brahma, Vishnu, & Shiva; Other gods are different ways their one God made appearances on earth.
Practice: Yoga Janana yoga- summons the power of the mind; meditation Bhakti yoga- encourages dedication to Brahman Karma yoga- service to others Raja yoga- combines all 3 (Hatha yoga) helps to develop complete control over the body
Caste System (Social Order) Brahmin- scholarly elite (priests) Kshatriya- ruling & military class Vaisyas- merchants & farmers Sudras- peasants Untouchables
Hindu Beliefs Vedas are divinely inspired Brahman is personal & impersonal Brahman is reached through many paths What we think of as reality is only the temporary world Karma ensures full accountability for every thought, action, and word in this life & all past lives Reincarnation- one is trapped in the cycle of life & death (samsara) until full realization is reached
Four Stages of Life The Student The Householder The Seeker The Ascetic
Four Goals of Life Righteousness Earthly prosperity & success Pleasure Spiritual Liberation
Hindu Celebrations Duhsehra/Durga Puja- to celebrate the triumph of good over evil (autumn) Rama Navami- holy day to celebrate the god Rama (spring) Krishna Janmashtami- birthday of Krishna (summer) Shiva Ratri- all night celebration of the divine god Shiva (winter)
Hindu Celebrations Infant welcoming ritual- when an infant can consume solid food Marriage- arranged; 5 ceremonies: verbal contract between parents, give-a-way of the bride, welcoming ceremony for the couple, hand- holding ritual, walking rite.
Hindu Celebrations Funeral- Cremation ritual (nukhagni) Shradda- Period of mourning is over & the soul departs
Questions????? This concludes Hinduism, In-class quiz tomorrow!!
Symbol is the “Wheel of Life” Began in India Shares many main beliefs with Hinduism Founder: Prince Siddhartha Gautama Higher being: Buddha ( when you achieve individual spiritual growth-enlightenment) **Hindu Gods DO exist, but do not hold dominion over human life**
Buddhist Commitments Not to Steal Not to Kill Not to act in unchaste manner Not to speak falsely Not to take intoxicants
Buddhist Monks & Nuns Vow: Not to eat at times not appointed Not to view “secular” entertainment Not to wear perfumes or bodily ornaments Not to sleep in beds that are too high or wide Not to accept money
Buddha Taught Deer Park Sermon- laid out the “roadmap” to Nirvana (State of final liberation from the cycle of life & death)
The Four Noble Truths 1. Life is Suffering 2. Suffering has a cause: craving & attachment 3. Craving & attachment can be overcome 4. The path toward the cessation of craving & attachment is following the Eight Fold Path:
The Eight Fold Path 1. Right Understanding 2. Right Purpose & Thought 3. Right Speech 4. Right Conduct & Action 5. Right Livlihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Alertness & Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration
Two Schools of Buddhism Theraveda ( found today in Sri Lanka & SE Asia)-focuses on compassion & service to others Mahayana(Japan, Korea, Mongolia, China)-founded by philosopher Nagarjuna. Focuses on individual disciple & solitary practice. ***Tibetan Buddhism is Mahayana & Hinduism mix*** ***Zen Buddhism means “meditation” and is used in all above**
Buddhist Celebrations Nirvana Day- 2/15 when Buddha’s passing is observed Buddha Day- 4/8 when Buddha’s birth is celebrated Bodhi Day- 12/8 the day when Prince Gautama sat under a Bodhi Tree, not to leave until he reached enlightenment
Confucianism is: A religion A philosophy An ethical system A social tradition A scholarly discipline
Confucianism Tidbits Begun by K’ung Fu-tse which means “Master K’ung. (Confucius) Confucius born in 551 B.C.E. in Lu, China There is no specific name for the followers Worship in Buddhist & Hindu temples or in the home
Six Relationships of Confucianism Parent & Child Ruler & Minister Government Officials Husband & Wife Older & Younger Sibling Friend & Friend
Analects Lun Yu ( Analect of Confucius are the “Holy Book”) It is a list of sayings (Aphorisms/Epigrams)
Analects deal with: Courtesy Etiquette Reverence Humane benevolence Conduct of the ruler Moral patterns Social roles There are 9 books: Five Classics an the Four Books Other Holy Books: Book of Changes I Ching
Confucianism is a way of life. It is used with other religions to show people how to live a good life.
Taoism Founded by Lao-Tzu about 520 B.C.E. Began in China Symbol is the Yin and Yang. Worship takes place in nature Is practiced along with other religions. It is a way of life.
Tao Te Ching Holy Books include the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching ( inspired) Tao Te Ching tells how to live life. Written in poetic form, it includes vague stories and fables for a person to figure out how it relates to life, on their own.
“Keep it Simple” From the Tao Te Ching As to dwelling, live near the ground. As to thinking, hold to that which is simple. As to conflict, pursue fairness & generosity. As to governance, do not attempt to control. As to work, do that which you like doing. As to family life, be fully present.
Be still like a mountain and flow like a great river." Lao Tse "Different Chinese philosophers, writing probably in 5-4 centuries B.C., presented some major ideas and a way of life that are nowadays known under the name of Taoism, the way of correspondence between man and the tendency or the course of natural world." Alan Watts, from his book: "Tao: The Watercourse Way." "We believe in the formless and eternal Tao, and we recognize all personified deities as being mere human constructs. We reject hatred, intolerance, and unnecessary violence, and embrace harmony, love and learning, as we are taught by Nature. We place our trust and our lives in the Tao, that we may live in peace and balance with the Universe, both in this mortal life and beyond." Creed of the Western Reform Taoist Congregation 1