Minoans of Crete Inhabitants of the Island of Crete, whose rulers lived in the Palace at Knossos which had important frescoes of Minoan life. They were a sea-going culture or thalassocracy. By 1400 BC, they were destroyed by a volcanic eruption.
Athens An aristocracy dominated by noble landowners. Solon reformed Athens into the world’s first democracy with limited rights.
Sparta A nation of warrior- soldiers in Southern Greece that was ruled by kings and a council of elders. From childhood, all Spartans were prepared to be soldiers or support the warrior culture.
Democracy Athens was a direct democracy where the people voted through a legislature or law- making body.
Oligarchy Rule by a few, usually wealthy, people. Sparta was ruled by more than one king.
Delian League A military and economic collaboration of Greek city-states.
Peloponnesian Wars Wars between Athens and Sparta from 431 BC to 404 BC.
Socrates Outspoken critic of the Athenian government, who expressed his philosophy and encouraged his students to examine their lives.
Plato Great works: The Allegory of the Cave and The Republic in which he emphasized the importance of reason.
Aristotle Was the teacher of Alexander the Great and promoted learning and reason as the guiding forces of life.
Euclid His “Elements” were the foundation of Geometry
Pythagorus Pythagorean Theorum - The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c). Contributions to philosophy, science and mathematics.
Alexander the Great Took the throne of Macedonia when his father, Phillip was assassinated – built the Hellenistic Empire.
Hellenism Blending of Eastern and Western cultures because of the conquests of Alexander the Great. The city of Alexandria in Egypt was the heart of the Hellenistic Empire.
Geography of Rome Seven Hills of Rome – the Palentine Hill was the most important.
The Punic Wars “Carthage must be destroyed,” was the cry of Cato the Elder in the Senate of Rome. Carthage was a rival of Rome during it’s empire. Hannibal Barcus tried to defeat the empire but came up short when a war of attrition was fought at the gates of Rome.
Greek and Roman Mythology Very similar, but Greek gods were believed to interfere in the daily lives of citizens.
Christianity In Judea, declared himself the Son of God and was crucified in Jerusalem.
Emperor Constantine Moved the capitol of Rome to the Bosphorus and named it Constantinople. In the Edict of Milan, declared the Christian religion the official religion of Rome.
Emperor Diocletian Split the Roman Empire into the East and Western Empires. The Eastern Empire flourished while the Western Empire fell to barbarians and entered the Dark Ages.
Greco-Roman Culture It was the ancient Roman culture that was greatly influenced by Greek culture.
Indian Ocean Trade In the Roman Empire, long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West.